Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Hygiene

Comparative hygienic assessment of working conditions and quality of life of urban and rural doctors

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 281-286
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Petrosyan А.А.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: assessment of the impact of labor peculiarities in urban and rural areas on the quality of life of doctors. Material and Methods. The study involved 198 doctors of various specialties from rural areas of the Saratov region and the city of Saratov. Sanitary hygienic examination of labor conditions and questionnaire SF-36 on quality of life assessment of health-care workers were conducted. Results. The objective hygienic characteristics of working conditions of city doctors of various specialties, and physicians working in rural areas are presented. It was found that doctors in rural areas are much more likely to combine work in the main and related specialties than urban ones: 31,6 and 15,6% respectively. It is important to note that the frequent combination of rural doctors in related professions also adversely affects the quality of their lives. Conclusion. The analysis of the results of the conducted research proves that when assessing the severity and intensity of the labor process of rural and urban health workers, it is necessary to take into account not only the working conditions but also the level of compatibility.

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Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №4 Pages: 637-644
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Galstyan I.A., Nadejina N.M., Suvorova L.A., Kashirina O.G., Nugis V.Ju.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL) range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

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Comprehensive radiation survey and public health assessment in the vicinity of NPP

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №4 Pages: 633-637
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Samoilov A.S., Shandala N.K., Korenkov I.P., Romanov V.V., Filonova A.A., Novikova N.Ya.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim. For many years, SRC-FMBC carried out comprehensive monitoring of radiation-hygienic situation in order to assess the dynamics of the measurement of the environmental media, public health and to develop health and epidemiological measures to assure the public welfare. Matherial and methods. The radiation-hygienic conditions of the environment are assessed by comparing the obtained results with the regional background values. Result. The radionuclide concentrations in the environmental media within the NPP supervision area do not exceed typical regional background values. We studied the radionuclide concentrations in some foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, drinking water and other environmental media. The concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in foodstuffs are the same as in the similar foodstuffs from other regions and the whole Russia. This is due to global precipitation of 137Cs and 90Sr following the nuclear weapons tests and accident at the Chernobyl NPP of 1986. Conclusion. According to analysis of the main
health indicators of the public living around the NPP, general state of the adult and children public is healthy. There is no impact of the NPP on negative trends in some changing indicators of the adult and children public health.

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Register indicators of physical endurance of biological objects when running a treadmill and swimming with weights using computer video markerless tracking

Summary:

Purpose: to study the use of video tracking to assess physical endurance and indicators of biological objects fatigue when running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. Material and methods. Physical endurance evaluated by test facilities for running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. As the object of the studies used laboratory rats. Results. For indicators of physical endurance biological objects isolated areas running track of treadmill and electrical stimulation site, when swimming on the total area of the container isolated subarea near the water surface. With video tracking performed computer timing of finding biological object in different zones of the treadmill and containers for swimming. On the basis of data on the time location rats in a given zone apparatus for running and swimming, obtained in the dynamics of the test of physical endurance, build a "fatigue curves", quantified changes in the indices of hard work, depending on the duration of its execution. Conclusion. Video tracking allows to define the execution of physical work to overflowing with loads of aerobic and mixed aerobic-anaerobic power, establish quantitative indicators of changes in the dynamics of biological objects operability testing with the construction of "fatigue curve" and objectively determine the times of occurrence in experimental animals exhaustion when fails to perform physical work.

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The magnetic field near power lines in the Moscow region: the results of measurements and their analyze

Summary:

The aim: to analyze the real power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz) values near power lines. The material. Long-term measurements of the power frequency magnetic field (50 Hz) near power lines of 110 kV, 220 kVand 500 kVin the Moscow region. Methods. Measurements were made by tracks which were perpendicular to the wires. Length of tracks was up to 40 m. Sensor of measurer was located on 1.8 m under the ground. General quantity of measurement points were 1103. The results. Was obtained general characteristics of real values of strength of electric field and values of magnetic flux density depending to distance to the projection last wire near power lines. Conclusion. Analysis of the results has the values of the magnetic field of power lines correspond to the Russian rules in all cases. Using additional World Health Organization safety criteria for magnetic fields (the class of carcinogenic risks 2B) requires the expansion of the health safety zone 2-3 times.

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Psychological factors of professional success of nuclear power plant main control room operators

Summary:

Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A) and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.

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The formation of risk groups for development of occupational diseases during the pre-employment and periodic medical examinations to conduct recreational activities

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №4 Pages: 754-758
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Bushmanov A. Yu., Kretov A.S., Kasymova O.A., Mamonova E.U., Gevorkyan E.M.
Organization: NP «National society of industrial medicine», State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Research objective. The purpose ofthe study was to develop methodology for the formation of groups at risk of developing chronic diseases and complex of measures for their prevention when carrying out a compulsory medical examination of workers. Materials and methods. The results of periodic medical examinations for 2012 were analyzed according to 19 the final acts and reports 61 subjects ofthe Russian Federation. The results ofthe examination ofthe connection between disease and occupation were analyzed according to 50 examination protocols ofthe Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency during 200-2010. Results. Based on the results ofthe conducted analysis methodology was developed to assess the risk of occupational disease fully meets the current legislative and regulatory framework of the Russian Federation and enable the individual and group level: to assess the risk of occupational diseases (high, medium, low, no); to identify possible nosological forms of diseases that should be expected, in accordance with the current list of occupational diseases; — to predict the presence or absence of responsibility employer for any case of occupational disease; to generate the necessary recommendations to the employer for the prevention of occupational diseases among workers. Conclusion. The method of formation of risk groups for development of occupational diseases recommended for medical organizations, conducting preliminary and periodic medical examinations.

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Significance of the sanitary-hygienic indicators of the water source quality for the assessment of the morbidity of infectious diseases

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №3 Pages: 369-372
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Sergeva E.S.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim: To define the most informative indicators of the water resources quality, which reflect the increased risk for the infectious diseases occurrence due to water. Material and Method: The water collection was performed from the rivers of the Saratov region. The retrospective analysis of indicators of the water quality and the morbidity level associated with water among the population has been performed. The statistical analysis has been performed by means of dispersion, regression and discrimination methods. Results: The rivers in this study belong to the water sources of the 2nd grade. We have identified the most polluted rivers with chemicals: Maly Usen, Medveditsa, Atkara; with microorganisms: Choper, Big Ysen, Big Irgis. The two statistic correlations have been found for the right bank of the Volga region; the three statistic correlations have been found for the left bank of the Volga region. Conclusions: The indicators of the chemical consumption of oxygen and of general coliform bacteria have been determined to be the most significant for the risk assessment of morbidity of acute intestinal infections.

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Results of the study of health status of workers employed in the bakery production

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №2 Pages: 229-232
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Maltsev М.S.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim: scientific basement for the hygienic, medical and prophylactic activities, excluding the adverse impact of the harmful and dangerous industrial factors on the workers' health. Material and methods. It was extensively studied the health of 327 workers who belong to the important for the hygienic investigations professions in the bakery production, experiencing the impact of harmful industrial factors. To assess the subjective characteristics of the working conditions, the labor process, and the health status of workers the questionnaire was composed. The 214 respondents participated in the survey. Results: Analysis of the results of the extensive medical examinations showed that the first place takes the pathology of the organs of the urogenital system — 71.4% (per 100 women). The gastrointestinal tract diseases were also largely presented (62.3%). Among the major disadvantages of the working conditions, according to the respondents, were the microclimate conditions, dust, and poor light (91.2%, 87.6%, 83.0% responses, respectively). Conclusion. It was found that the morbidity among the workers in the bakery production industry had the professional features: the polysystemic and polyorganic pathology. With the purpose of the optimization of the factors of the industrial environment, a set of organizational, technological and medical activities, the implementation of which will allow to reduce the harmful effects of adverse working conditions was developed.

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Monitoring of radiation hygienic situation in the area of the Argun production mining and chemical association

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 824-827
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Shandala N.K., Titov А.V., Kiselev S.М., Seregin V.A., Isaev D.V., Semenova M.P.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The Argun Production Mining and Chemical Association is a multi-activity mining company which perfprms mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. The researches performed showed that there is a significant excess of 226Ra and 232Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining.

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