Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

pathogenesis

Etiopathogenetic aspects of development of a microbial eczema

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 651-656
Heading: Skin Diseases Article type: Review
Authors: Tlish M.M., Popandopulo Е.К.
Organization: Kuban State Medical University
Summary:

The relevance of studying of an etiology and pathogenesis of a microbial eczema is caused by the fact that it is one of the most widespread chronic dermatosises which exerts stress impact and leads to essential restrictions in all spheres of activity of the person. In the last decade earlier beginning of a dermatosis, the increasing weight, synchronization of a current with a frequent long recurrence, the considerable distribution of skin pathological process and also formation of resistance to the standard methods of therapy is noted. The data of the Russian and foreign authors concerning the main questions of an etiology and a pathogenesis of a microbial eczema are presented in the review. The epidemiology of this pathology in population is described. Connection of a microbial eczema with influence of microorganisms, violation of work of digestive tract, is analyzed by an angiopathy, pathology of endocrine and nervous systems; changes of the immune answer are noted.

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The role of skeletal tissue remodeling markers in the patho-genesis of implant-associated inflammation after primary knee arthroplasty

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №3 Pages: 515-518
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Original article
Authors: Galashina Е.А., Bondarenko A.S., Ulyanov V.Yu., Klimov S.S.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim: to reveal certain mechanisms of the pathogenesis of implant-associated inflammation by the level of resorption and bone tissue genesis markers in patients who underwent primary knee arthroplasty. Material and Methods. Main group consisted of 40 patients with implant-associated inflammation; first comparison group — of 20 patients with primary aseptic loosening of knee joint implant components; second comparison group — of 20 patients who underwent primary knee arthroplasty without complications in post-operative period; control group — of 20 conventionally healthy individuals. The levels of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and bone morphogenetic protein-2were defined in blood serum of all subjects by ELISA. Results. In patients of main group we observed more pronounced increase of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand content and significant decrease of bone morphogenetic protein-2 content in blood serum; patients of first comparison group demonstrated activation of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and decreased levels of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in blood serum; patients of second comparison group did not demonstrate any changes in the studied indexes. Conclusion. The activation of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and decreased activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 have leading role in the pathogenesis of implant-associated inflammation.

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Peculiarities of remodeling of hyalin cartilage at early stages of development of degenerative-distrophic processes of knee joints

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 70-75
Heading: pathological anatomy Article type: Original article
Authors: Gladkova E.V., Romakina N.A., Ananyeva O.E., Belova S.V., Babushkina I.V., Persova E.A., Karyakina E.M.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The aim is to develop methods for detection of hyaline cartilage metabolic imbalance in patients with initial degenerative dystrophic changes in the substantiated pathogenetically knee. Material and Methods. Subject of inquiry: 50 women aged from 35 up to 57 (49.1 ±2.4), among them 36 patients with an early stage of knee osteoarthrosis made up an experimental group, 14 women without any musculoskeletal disease clinical presentations made up a control group. We carried out a complex examination including physical assessment, study of orthopaedic status, interview with the use of KOOS (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) scale, roentgenography and MRI of the knee and also a number of laboratory tests: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determination of the content of cytokine profile indices (IL-1, TNF-a, IL-6), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and bone (SerumCrossLaps and bone isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (BAP)) tissue metabolism markers in blood serum in all the groups of patients. Results. In all the patients of the experimental group the roentgenologic stage of osteoarthrosis was defined as 0-1 according to J. Lawrence and J. Kellgren, but at the same time knee degenerative changes were objectivized on the series of MR images in the form of MR signal changes of the articular cartilage, erosions and cysts, degenerative meniscus. We observed increased serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in the same group and that is characteristic of hyaline cartilage destruction activation. We also detect disorders in bone tissue remodeling in the form of bone resorption intensification (Serum CrossLaps), osteogenesis increase (BAP) and activation of proinflammatory cytokine system link (IL-1, TNF-a). Conclusion. The leading pathogenetic links of the early degenerative changes of the knee are hyperproduction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-a), destruction of the hyaline cartilage and disorder in bone tissue remodeling. Assessment of biochemical predictors of cartilage and bone tissue degradation along with the instrumental methods of diagnosis is of great theoretical and practical importance in the system of early detection of incipient osteoarthrosis.

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The etiological role of opportunistic microflora in the pathogenesis of implant-associated inflammation in patients after primary total knee replacement

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 30-34
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Original article
Authors: Babushkina I.V., Bondarenko A.S., Ulyanov V.Yu., Chibrikova Yu.A., Adilov R.G., Kupina E.S.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The aim: to study etiological role of opportunistic microflora in the pathogenesis of implant-associated inflammation in patients after primary knee joint replacement and antibiotic sensitivity of main agent groups. Material and Methods. The retrospective analysis of microbiological samples of 383 patients with implant-associated inflammation occurred after primary total knee replacement. Results. Gram-positive cocci (63.5%) are the leading agents of implant-associ- ated inflammation, and there is an increase in the etiological role of coagulase-positive Staphylococci. Main agents of Gram-negative group were Enterobacteraceae and non-enzyme bacteria. We revealed high resistance of Staphylo-coccus spp. to antibiotics of various groups. Oxazolidinones and glycylcyclines were the most active among all antibiotic groups. Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to cephalosporine and macrolides with carbapenems and fluoroquinolones being most active. Conclusion. Gram-negative Enterobacteraceae, non-enzyme bacteria and Gram-positive cocci are most significant etiological factors in the pathogenesis of implant-associated inflammation in patients after primary total knee replacement.

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Role of humoral immunity markers and bone tissue metabolism in paraimplant inflammation pathogenesis after primary knee arthroplasty

Year: 2017, volume 13 Issue: №3 Pages: 756-761
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Original article
Authors: Ulyanov V.Ju., Bondarenko A.S., Galashina E.A., Chibrikova Ju.A,. Avilov R.G., Kupina E.S.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The aim: is to study the peculiarities of paraimplant inflammation pathogenesis after primary knee arthroplasty on the basis of dynamic changes of humoral immunity markers and bone tissue metabolism. Material and Methods. Research object includes 140 cases: 50 patients with paraimplant inflammation make up the main group; 30 patients with early aseptic instability make up the first experimental group; 30 patients undergoing primary arthroplasty make up the second experimental group; 30 conditionally healthy blood serum donors make up the control group. We determined the content of humoral immunity markers (circulating immune complexes binding C3d and containing IgG, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells) and bone tissue metabolism (tumor necrosis factor a, interleukin 1 (3, bone isoen-zyme of alkaline phosphatase) by the method of hardphase immune-enzyme analysis in all the groups. Results. We noticed elevated activity of circulating immune complexes binding C3d and containing IgG, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells, proinflammatory cytokines and alkaline phosphatase in blood serum of patients with paraimplant inflammation; proinflammatory cytokines and alkaline phosphatase — in patients with early aseptic instability; there were no changes in the studied indicators- in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. Conclusion. Increased expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells causing release of proinflammatory cytokines and also elevated activity of circulating immune complexes binding C3d and containing IgG and bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase play a significant role in paraimplant inflammation pathogenesis after primary knee arthroplasty.

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Immunopathogenetic mechanisms of skin toxic response of antitumor therapy with mul-tikinase of angiogenesis inhibitors

Year: 2017, volume 13 Issue: №3 Pages: 605-611
Heading: Dermatovenerology Article type: Review
Authors: Shatokhina Е.А., Kruglova L.S.
Organization: Central State Medical Academy of the ADP of the Russian Federation
Summary:

The violation of the angiogenesis is associated with pathogenesis of many diseases, but especially pronounced pathological angiogenesis underlies the growth of tumors and metastasis. The physiological control of the angiogenesis is carried out by many growth factors, one main factor — the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), realizing their effects by receptors — proteinkinases. The target therapy of various neoplastic diseases, based on the suppression of angiogenesis, aimed at blockade of receptors for VEGF and other pro-angiogenic growth factors. However, the medicine blockade of receptors for growth factors and suppression of tumor angiogenesis leads to inappropriate exposure are the main cells of the dermis — fibroblasts. As a result of changing the regulatory mechanisms of inhibition of the physiological renewal of epidermis, suppression of angiogenesis and repair when damaged skin there are various skin toxic reactions that are dependent on receptor targets of angiogenesis inhibitors. The study of the mechanisms of adverse events of targeted therapy is an important way of oncoimmunology and dermatology, which will further help to determine the optimal scheme of correction of dermal toxicity and maximize the effectiveness of the antitumor therapy.

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Retrocervical endometriosis: etiology, pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and treatment

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №2 Pages: 138-144
Heading: Obstetrics and Gynecology Article type: Review
Authors: Tarlamazian A.V., Stolyarova U.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The review deals with contemporary issues of etiology, pathogenesis, classification, diagnosis and treatment of retrocervical endometriosis on the basis of existing data in the literature on this disease. Among the various forms of endometrial disease incidence retrocervical endometriosis, according to various authors, is 30-34%. The process is characterized by the formation of deep infiltrative lesions, originating from the recto-vaginal septum, without capsules and clear boundaries, extensively localizing, affecting the adjacent organs with the formation of scar-adhesions and characterizing this pathology as a multi-disciplinary (gynecological, surgical, urological). There are many options etio-pathogenesis of retrocervical endometriosis, but none of them fully explains the diversity of forms of expression and localization of this pathology. Particular attention is paid to the influence of immune and hormonal factors on the development of the disease. It is noted that currently there is no single universally accepted by clinicians and morphology full classification of retrocervical endometriosis, and there are no generally accepted standards of its diagnosis. The variants of the treatment of this disease have been considered including hormonal and immunomodulatory therapies.

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Clinical features of mastocytosis in children

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №3 Pages: 439-441
Heading: Dermatovenerology Article type: Case report
Authors: Shustova О.А., Schnaider D.A., Morrison A.V., Sherstobitova K.Y.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University, SEH «Saratov regional dermatovenerologic dispensary»
Summary:

A case of cutaneous mastocytosis, relating to the rarely seen dermatoses, is presented in the study. The data of etiology, pathogenesis, clinical picture are generalize.

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On the relationship between innate and adaptive immunity in psoriasis

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №3 Pages: 421-423
Heading: Dermatovenerology Article type: Review
Authors: Nikolashina О.Е., Bakulev A.L.
Organization: Penza Regional Clinical Center of specialized types of medical care, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

There is an overview of the current literature data, which reflects the key aspects of the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis. A genetically determined, multifactorial nature of the dermatosis was displayed. There were summarized numerous domestic and foreign data on immunological (cellular, humoral, mediator, extravasation, angiogenesis) and non-immune mechanisms of genesis of psoriasis.

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Critical problem of clinical pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori in gastroen-terology

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №1 Pages: 96-102
Heading: Clinical Pharmacology Article type: Review
Authors: Belova O.L., Bogoslovskaya S.I., Belova I.M.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

In discussional article argue unfounded of infectious hypothesis of the pathogenesis of ulceral disease of gastric and duodenum.

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