Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Review

Role of melatonin in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 559-563
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Khodzhaev N.S., Chuprov A.D., Kim S.M.
Organization: The S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in people aged 50 years and older in the advanced world. The article deals with the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease. Special attention is given to a new approach to the prevention and treatment of AMD with the help of melatonin; modern management options and scientifc achievements are discussed. Many researchers have shown that melatonin is able to protect retinal epithelial cells from oxidative damage. Perhaps the physiological reduction of melatonin in the elderly may be an important factor in the dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium, which is the cause of AMD.

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Evaluation of retinal neuroarchitectonics in presence of optic nerve head drusen

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 490-494
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Kabanova EA, Ioyleva EE, Zinovyeva AV.
Organization: Moscow State Medical Stomatological University n.a. A. I. Evdokimov, The S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Summary:

Purpose: assessment of retinal neuroarchitectonics in presence of optic nerve head (ONH) drusen. Materials and Methods. 108 patients (216 eyes) with bilateral drusen of the optic disc aged 18–60 years were examined, and the control group consisted of 28 healthy subjects. All patients underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) using Cirrus HD-OCT 5000–7544 device (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc.). Results. Three types of ONH drusen localization relative to the Bruch membrane were identifed: superfcial, deep and difuse. Difuse localization of the drusen was determined in 48.6 % of cases, deep — in 40.3 %, superfcial — in 11.1 %. Deep optic disc drusen were more common in a young age (35.5±13.1 years), difuse — in medium age (42.0±13.2 years), superfcial — at an older age (51.7±12.8 years). With superfcial and difuse drusen of the optic disc, a signifcant (p<0.05) decrease in the thickness of the ganglion cell (GC) layer in all studied sectors, a decrease in the minimum and average GC thickness was found, as well as a signifcant (p<0.05) decrease in the average thickness and cubic volume of the neuroepithelium. With deep drusen opacities, the changes in GC were less pronounced and statistically insignifcant. Conclusion. analysis of the obtained data showed that deep drusen of the optic disc are the initial stage of congenital pathology, difuse drusen are a developed stage, and superfcial drusen of the optic disc characterize the development of fnal stage.

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Composite nanomaterials on the basis of magnetic nanoparticles for theranostic application

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 368-371
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: Bucharskaya A.B.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Literature review is devoted to the use of composite nanomaterials based on magnetic nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases.

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Principles of the program of enhanced recovery of patients after radical prostatectomy

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 324-327
Heading: Urology Article type: Review
Authors: Pavlov V.N., Tarasenko A.I., Korelov Yu.A., Maksimova S.Yu., Khotko D.N., Khotko A.I.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Analysis of statistical data on cancer incidence shows a high prevalence of such diseases as prostate cancer. The existing methods of treatment of this pathology are efective, but the question of reducing the surgical stress of patients who underwent surgery, reducing the number of complications, early mobilization and early recovery remains relevant. The presented literary review reveals the provisions proposed in the XX century, multimodal strategy «Fast track sur-gery», revealing the tactics of surgical patients throughout the perioperative period. The application of this protocol shows its efectiveness in reducing the duration of hospitalization and early rehabilitation of the considered group of patients.

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Principles of the program of enhanced recovery of patients after radical prostatectomy

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 324-327
Heading: Urology Article type: Review
Authors: Pavlov V.N., Tarasenko A.I., Korelov Yu.A., Maksimova S.Yu., Khotko D.N., Khotko A.I.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Analysis of statistical data on cancer incidence shows a high prevalence of such diseases as prostate cancer. The existing methods of treatment of this pathology are efective, but the question of reducing the surgical stress of patients who underwent surgery, reducing the number of complications, early mobilization and early recovery remains relevant. The presented literary review reveals the provisions proposed in the XX century, multimodal strategy «Fast track sur-gery», revealing the tactics of surgical patients throughout the perioperative period. The application of this protocol shows its efectiveness in reducing the duration of hospitalization and early rehabilitation of the considered group of patients.

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The role of connective tissue dysplasia in aetiopathogenesis of varicose disease and acute varicothrombophlebitis

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 302-307
Heading: Surgery Article type: Review
Authors: Tsarev O.A., Anisimov A.Yu., Prokin F.G., Zakharov N.N., Senin A.A., Kulikova A.N.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The academic literature review presents the analysis of recent publications which focus on the role of connective tissue dysplasia in aetiopathogenesis of lower extremity varicose vein disease (LEVVD) and acute varicothrombophle-bitis (AVTPh). The ways of predicting the variants of LEVVD and AVTPh clinical course on the basis of analyzing the combination of phenotypic characteristics are examined. Key words: varicose disease, varicothrombophlebitis, connective tissue dysplasia.

Biliary anastomotic strictures after liver transplantation

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 296-301
Heading: Surgery Article type: Review
Authors: Popov M.V., Voskanyan S.E., Dunaev A.P., Bashkov A.N., Maltseva A.P.
Organization: Moscow City Oncologic Hospital N. 62, Imaging Department, State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The literature review presents the data on a current state of the problem of anastomotic strictures of the bile ducts in patients after living donor liver transplantation, called the «Achilles» heel» of transplantology. The data on the frequency and timing of the development of strictures, their causes and risk factors are given. The role of imaging methods in the diagnosis of this group of complications is shown. Methods for treating biliary post-transplantation strictures are described: antegrade, retrograde, and open. The themes of the prospects of percutaneous and endoscopic techniques and the choice of stricture treatment methods are also touched upon.

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Periodontal disease at cardiovascular pathology

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 246-251
Heading: Stomatology Article type: Review
Authors: Eremin A.V., Lepilin A.V., Lipatova T.E.
Organization: First Moscow State Medical University n.a. I.M. Sechenov, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The purpose of the systematic literature review was to characterize existing problem of the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and periodontal diseases on the basis of information analysis of the Russian and English original studies and metanalyses published in open access bibliographical databases such as eLibrary and PubMed the past ten years as a methodological basis for future clinical and experimental studies

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Eradication therapy in children: the choice of the optimal treatment regimen

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 225-231
Heading: Pediatrics Article type: Review
Authors: Zryachkin N.I., Ananyeva O.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The review is devoted to the choice of the optimal treatment regimen of eradication therapy in children. Main tasks in the treatment of children with gastroduodenal pathology associated with Helicobacter pylori are eradication of the pathogen, restoration of the damaged mucosa and prevention of recurrence of the infection. A particular importance in the composition of eradication schemes is the choice of antibacterial drugs. The main requirements for anti-Helico-bacter therapy regimens used in pediatric practice are: eradication rate of at least 80 %, economic accessibility, good tolerability with minimal severity of adverse reactions, optimal frequency of admission. An analysis of a number of domestic and foreign studies has shown that insufcient adherence of the patient to therapy, the presence of antibacterial resistance, pathogenicity factors in a number of strains of H. pylori have a negative efect on the efectiveness of treatment and should also be taken into account when choosing therapeutic tactics. Successful eradication of H. pylori in most cases depends on the optimal treatment regimen also has an impact on the result.

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Cardiac remodeling in patients with chronic kidney disease

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 217-221
Heading: Internal Diseases Article type: Review
Authors: Sedov D.S., Rebrov А.Р.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The duration and quality of life of patients undergoing extracorporeal renal replacement therapy are largely dependent on concomitant diseases and conditions. Cardiovascular disease is a significant complication of chronic kidney disease and a major cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cardiovascular remodeling is an independent predictor of the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including those in the dialysis stage. This paper analyzes the literature on left ventricular myocardial remodeling in the late predialysis stages of CKD and in patients receiving treatment with chronic hemodialysis.

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