Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Review

Pediatric flatfoot: etiopathogenesis and diagnostics

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №3 Pages: 389-395
Heading: Traumatology and Orthopedics Article type: Review
Authors: Zatravkina T.Yu., Rubashkin S.A., Dokhov M.M.
Organization:
Summary:

Longitudinal flatfoot is heterogeneous group of conditions, characterized by a decrease of longitudinal arch height. In mobile flatfoot, this decrease is dynamic, it occurs under vertical load and proceeds asymptomatically. Specialists should pay attention to the "pathological" flatfoot developing with pain syndrome or causing severe gait disturbance. The review analyzes the fundamental and current opinions of local and foreign researchers on the development of flatfoot in children. Literatural data of age dynamics of foot development, epidemiology of flatfoot in childhood, the influence of flatfoot on the foot and gait biomechanics and basic diagnostic methods are presented.

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Radiation methods for evaluating renal function in children

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №3 Pages: 385-388
Heading: Radiology Article type: Review
Authors: Chekhonatskaya M.L., Averianov А.Р., Uts I.A., Velikanova M.G., Bobylev D.A., Chekhonatsky I.A.
Organization: Clinical hospital n.a. S. R. Mirotvortsev SSMU, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Moscow, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

 An accurate assessment of renal function is critical for adequate dosing of medications. The most informative marker reflecting the functional state of the kidneys is glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Determination of inulin clearance is the most accurate way to assess GFR in children and adults. In this case, the method is invasive, cumbersome, younger children require the installation of a urinary catheter. Techniques for radioisotope estimation of GFR can solve this problem, but all widely used radioisotopes have the ability to bind slightly to plasma proteins, which leads to an underestimation of real values.

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Use of adhesive systems in dentistry: past and present

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 234-239
Heading: Stomatology Article type: Review
Authors: Aslanyan M.A., Eremin O.V., Trufanova Yu.Yu., Aslanyan Mel.A., Eremin А.О., Bykova О.A., Zavyalov A.I.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

In recent decades, in the sphere of minimally invasive approach to preparing hard dental tissues, adhesive dentistry has made significant progress, revolutionizing many aspects of restorative dentistry. The attitude towards cavity preparation has changed due to adhesive systems as there is no necessary to prepare cavities with additional retention points to ensure mechanical adhesion with the filling material. Thus, the introduction of adhesive systems contributes to the preservation of more non-demineralized enamel and dentin in the preparation of hard dental tissues in accordance with the principle of "biological expediency". To achieve a better connection with the hard tissues of the tooth, a number of adhesive systems has been developed. The complexity of achieving a better connection is due to the heterogeneity of the structure and composition of the hard dental tissues, the hydrophilicity of the exposed dentin surface, smear layer formed during the preparation of the cavity and the characteristics of the adhesive system, such as its physical and chemical properties and the way it interacts with enamel and dentin. With the development of technologies, adhesive systems have evolved from systems that do not involve the etching of hard dental tissues to systems with preliminary total etching and self-etching adhesive systems.

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Norm and disease. Monomorbidity, comorbidity and methodology for their diagnostics

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 209-216
Heading: Internal Diseases Article type: Review
Authors: Kats Y.A., Parkhoniuk E.V., Skriptsova S.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The absence of a single classification and generally accepted terminology of comorbidity leads to a different understanding of the issues of diagnosis of comorbidity. Comorbidity is a complex system in which the patient is both an integral object and part of this system, which includes diseases complexes. As it is known, the success of solving diagnostic problems, especially in the presence of comorbidity ultimately determines the consistency and validity of the findings, and, consequently, the effectiveness of the diagnosis as a whole. Previously, we proposed an integrative method which, preserving the system approach and the method of comparison, suggests using the sum of data from genetic, constitutional, immunological, anthropological and other types of examination to obtain the most complete representation not only of the nature of the disease, but, first of all, the patient himself. Proceeding from the foregoing, the present review focuses not only on the features of compiling a "patient diagnosis" in the presence of comorbidity but also on the sequence in which the pathological conditions should be considered and reflected in the main diagnosis in the presence of several active processes.

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Adipokines and their possible role in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 201-206
Heading: Endocrinology Article type: Review
Authors: Kuznetsova L.A., Shpakov А.О.
Organization: I. M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology and Neurochemistry
Summary:

The adipose tissue is the endocrine organ secreting polypeptide factors, such as adipokines, which are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, the metabolic, endocrine and inflammatory processes and insulin sensitivity. In obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), the production of adipokines and the activity of their signaling pathways are changed, which plays an important role in the relationship between obesity, insulin resistance and DM2. In the review (according the types of obesity) the data on the production of adipokines with diabetogenic (leptin, visfatin, chemerin, vaspin, apelin, resistin) and antidiabetic (adiponectin, omentin) properties by the adipose tissue, as well as the possible role of adipokines in the development of obesity and DM2 were discussed.

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"Benign" multiple sclerosis: a variant of favorable disease course and the result of effective treatment

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 153-156
Heading: Neurology Article type: Review
Authors: Makarov N.S., Kolokolov O.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The article provides an overview of data on isolated demyelination syndromes that may precede multiple sclerosis, and on the peculiarities of the so-called "benign" form of multiple sclerosis. Clinical and anamnestic criteria for establishing the fact of a "benign" form of multiple sclerosis are presented, as well as trends in the number of these patients in the general population of patients with multiple sclerosis, including in connection with the improvement of treatment methods for this disease.

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Acute varicothrombophlebitis: modern approach to the problem

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 87-94
Heading: Surgery Article type: Review
Authors: Tsarev О.А., Anisimov A.Yu., Prokin F.G., Zakharov A.A., Lobanov A.V., Senin A.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Acute varicothrombophlebitis, or thrombosis of superficial veins (TSV), is a dangerous complication of lower extremity varicose vein disease, as it is a frequent cause for pulmonary artery thromboembolism. The survey states the modern approach to pathogenesis, diagnostics, clinical findings and therapeutic approach to patients with TSV.

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A comprehensive approach to the diagnosis and treatment of straghorn nephrolithiasis

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 81-86
Heading: Urology Article type: Review
Authors: Chekhonatskaya M.L., Rossolovsky A.N., Kryuchkov I.A., Bobylev D.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

A review of the literature is devoted to the most topical diagnostic questions and treatment of patients with urolithia-sis. The role and the latest advances and benefits of minimally invasive surgery were described. Particular attention was paid to the problems of residual calculi and the condition of the renal parenchyma in the perioperative period. The theme of choice of conducting such patients tactics was considered. The actual diagnostic methods and a differentiated approach to the algorithm choice of the examination and treatment of patients with staghorn nephrolithiasis were considered. The review provided a scientometric analysis of research information (documents reference), contained the analytical array of scientific publications. Electronic information resources of scientific electronic library bibliographic databases: eLibrary, PubMed, Clinical Key, Science Direct — were used.

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Irritable bowel syndrome: epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 53-60
Heading: Internal Diseases Article type: Review
Authors: Tikhonova Т.А., Kozlova I.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The literature review focuses on some epidemiological aspects, molecular-genetic predictors of irritable bowel syndrome formation, the role of psychosocial and infectious factors, low-grade inflammation, imbalance between neu-rotransmitters and cytokines, as well as changes in the intestinal microbiome in the development of irritable bowel syndrome.

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Anatomy of the posterior communicating artery

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №1 Pages: 25-29
Heading: Human anatomy Article type: Review
Authors: Fomkina О.А., Nikolenko V.N., Gladilin Yu.A.
Organization: First Moscow State Medical University n.a. I.M. Sechenov, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: to generalize and systematize the information available in the literature about the anatomy of the posterior connective arteries in adults. Scientific works (monographs, articles, dissertations and abstracts of dissertations) of native and foreign authors for the period from 1928 to 2017 were worked out to achieve the goal. Data on the variants of artery discharge, areas of blood supply and major anomalies are presented. The size characteristics of arteries (length, outer diameter, wall thickness and lumen diameter) are presented taking into account bilateral, age and sexual differences.

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