Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Military medicine and disaster medicine

Estimation of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes in interpretation of the results of the public survey to assess the thyroidal iodine content following a radiation accident at the nuclear power plant

Summary:

Aim. A detail consideration has been done to assess an importance of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the public survey for following the Chernobyl accident. Empirical ratios have been derived to take into account that contribution under interpretation of the results of survey meter monitoring of the public. Materials and methods. Model calculations for typical radionuclide intake by the residents living in contaminated territories after the Chernobyl accident have been carried out in order to assess the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid by the survey. Under such calculations two the most important modes of intake have been considered: 1) inhalation and 2) ingestion with cow milk. Results. According to the estimates received the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes to the exposure rate measured near the thyroid during the first 20 days does not exceed 20% for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and 30% for the residents of Mogil'yov region. During 60 days following the accident that contribution is estimated to be within (50-80) % for the residents of southern areas of Gomel region and (80-95) % for the residents of Mogil'yov region. Conclusion. For the period of intensive thyroid measuring in the southern areas of Gomel region (the second part of May) account of the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes is relatively unimportant, but for Mogil'yov region (the end of May) — it is important to account for. For the thyroid measurements conducted in June of 1986 it is important for all residents living in Belarus to take into account the contribution of gamma-emission of incorporated cesium radioisotopes.

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Cytogenetic examination of persons working in the area of radiation accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan

Summary:

Purpose: biological dose indication of employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia who took part in the work in Japan in connection with the accident at Fukushima-1 NPP and several journalists covering this event. Material and methods. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 46 people was performed. Results. The frequency of chromosomal damages exceeded background levels in only 3 people, and aberration character testified irradiation in previous situations. Conclusion. The significant overexposure of these workers during they stayed in Japan is absent, however it is necessary to perform a preliminary analysis of chromosome aberrations if you intend to exercise of biological dose indication after returning of people from areas of potential exposure.

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Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

Summary:

The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

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The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 850-853
Heading: Military medicine and disaster medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Birukov A.P., Tukov A.R., Kleeva N.A., Kapitonova N.V.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%), liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%). There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower), than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times) is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

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Radiation safety assurance requirements during the transportation of patients with radiation contamination

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 847-850
Heading: Military medicine and disaster medicine Article type: Review
Authors: Grachev M.I., Salenko Yu.A., Frolov G.P., Bogdanova LS.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Transportation of patients with radioactive contamination may be followed by radiation effect to the medical staff and accompanying persons. The basic requirements for radiation safety during the transportation of patients from the radiation accident site to the hospital are discussed. Issues review in the article basically relate to the medical institutions of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency.

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Criteria and operational dosimetric quantities for the protective and urgent medical-sanitary actions in the early period of the radiological emergency

Summary:

The article deals with the criteria of radiation hazard and the relevant values of operational dosimetric quantities in order to preliminary assessment of the consequences and to make recommendations for the protective and urgent medical-sanitary actions in case of the radiological emergency. The article describes a scenario where, in the absence of information about the parameters of radioactive release or radioactive source, initial assessment of radiation consequences is developed based on the first dosimetry measurements in the environment.

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2013_04-01_844-847.pdf340.28 KB

The investigation of cardiac neuropathy formation characteristics in patients with metabolic syndrome and carbohydrate metabolism malfunction (according to the data of cardiac rhythm variability analysis)

Summary:

Aims: To study the aspects of cardiac neuropathy (CN) early formation in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and carbohydrate metabolism malfunction according to the data of cardiac rhythm variability analysis (CRV). Vegetative status assessment in patients with MS and glucose tolerance disturbance (GTD), MS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) has been done relying on the investigation of CRV analysis conventional features, such as RMSSD, pNN50, new approach application based on the determination of rhythmogram short period variations (RSPV), and rhythmogram weighted-mean variations (RWMV). RSPV monotony rise failure has been revealed on decrease of the heart contraction rate in patients with MS and GTD, MS and DM-2. Considerable decrease of RWMV has been observed in patients with MS and DM-2. RWMV values determined within 24 hours have been diminished in the morning in patients with MS and DM-2 and normal at night. RMSSD and pNN50 features have appeared to be significantly diminished in patients with MS and DM-2, they ranging within the normal readings in patients with MS and GTD, though in the morning pNN50 values have been found at the lower tolerance. Primary and completely reversible manifestations of CN have been revealed in patients with MS and GTD; new RWMV feature has been noted to have advantages over the conventional characteristics when diagnosing the signs of CN in patients with MS and GTD

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. Characteristics Of Hydrogenous Body Media Self-Emission And Its Use For Identification And Monitoring Of Inflammatory Infiltrative Changes In Lower Respiratory Tract

Year: 2009, volume 5 Issue: №4 Pages: 558-561
Heading: Military medicine and disaster medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: M.S. Gromov, I.V. Terekhov, V.V. Arzhnikov
Organization: Saratov State Medical University, Saratov Hospital MIA
Summary:

The article based on scientific research gives the description of radio-wave investigation of infiltrative processes in the lungs. A new method of studies - trance-resonant functional topography - has been used. Some new diagnostical criteria for identification and specification of infiltrative disease of thorax have been presented and some problems of diagnostics of inflammatory infiltrative changes of lower respiratory tract (pneumonia, sarcoidosis and lung cancer) have been solved

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The Organism Functional Status of Navy Helicopter Pilots and the Ways of its Optimization

Year: 2009, volume 5 Issue: №2 Pages: 212-217
Heading: Military medicine and disaster medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: D.L. Kotliar, A.N. Onishchenko
Organization: Saratov Military Medical Institute
Summary:

The results of the study of the organism functional status of navy helicopter pilots and navigators in different situations and working conditions of the professional activity (i.e. marine trip, during the preparation and realization of flights at the base airfield) have been analyzed in the process of military professional adaptation. The high physiological “value” of the specific pilots’ labor has been estimated. The technology of organism functional status optimization for helicopter pilots that takes into account psycho-physiological specifity of the professional activity as well as a revealed regularity in organism functional status changes and military professional adaptation has been worked out. That constitutes the sum total of physiologically proved structural and functional components, that is adaptation improvements, correction of the functional state restoration at the base airfield, working out recommendations for ship doctors on flying staff functional status individual correction during marine trip.

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MEDICAL PROVISION OF MILITARY SERVICE SAFETY: PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF MILITARY MEDICAL STUDENTS

Year: 2009, volume 5 Issue: №1 Pages: 60-63
Heading: Military medicine and disaster medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: N.G. Korshever, S.O. Zhilenko
Organization: Chelyabinsk Volga-Ural Military District Hospital, Saratov Military Medical Institute
Summary:

The analysis of military troop probation period of 194 students of Saratov Military Medical Institute has demonstrated the common drawbacks and defects in the military service activity on provision of military service safely. The determination of these drawbacks allows to plan concrete measures for improvement of this process.

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