Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care

Issues of epidemiology of epilepsy in the Republic of Bashkortostan

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 163-166
Heading: Neurology Article type: Original article
Authors: Novikova L.B., Akopyan А.Р., Sharapova K.M.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

Objective: to analyze the prevalence of epilepsy among adult population and the use of antiepileptic drugs (AED) in the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB) in 2013-2017. Material and Methods. Analysis of prevalence of etiological forms of epilepsy and used AEDs was carried out by analyzing data from annual reports of the neurological service of outpatient and inpatient medical institutions in cities and regions of the Republic of Bashkortostan, data of clinical examination of patients with a reliable diagnosis of epilepsy, as well as data from the Medical Information and Analytical Center (MIAC). Results. The prevalence of epilepsy in the Republic of Bashkortostan for the study period was 291.7- 325.8 case per 100 thousand population, which were most often recorded in central and eastern regions of the republic. The average age of patients ranged from 30.5±1.3to 41.8±0.2year. The ratio of men to women was approximately similar: 1.1:1.0. Cases of symptomatic epilepsy ranged from 82.6 to 46.5%. Among AEDs, carbamazepine was mainly used with a frequency of up to 47.4% and valproic acid with a frequency up to 32.9%. New generation drugs (parampanel) were rarely used (2.4%). Conclusion. The study of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of epilepsy is important for systemic organization of specific therapeutic and diagnostic measures and the creation of a specialized service to improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy.

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Comorbidity of diseases of the cardiovascular system and primary open-angle glaucoma

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 949-953
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Zagidullina A.Sh., Latypova Е.А., Nugmanova A.R.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

This literature review examines the potential diagnostic contribution of syndromes and cardiovascular diseases: hypertension, atherosclerosis, vascular dystonia, and cerebrovascular pathology in the development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). The study of relationships is relevant due to the commonality of some pathogenetic factors of POAG and these diseases and syndromes. It is necessary to take into account the effect of comorbid pathology in the early diagnosis of POAG, which will improve its quality, and the correction of associated disorders will contribute to the effectiveness of complex treatment of the disease.

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Ocular rosacea: etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations and main methods of treatment

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 946-949
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Mustafina G.R., Khismatullina Z.R., Sattarova R.R.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care, ZAO Optimedservis
Summary:

The review of the literature covers etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical manifestations and the main methods of treatment of ocular rosacea. Rosacea is one of the common chronic skin diseases with a diverse clinical picture. Ophthalmological manifestations of the disease are associated with affect to the cornea, conjunctiva and eyelids. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood currently. Pathological processes in ocular rosacea are associated with disorders in vascular, immune and nervous systems, as well as with the influence of a number of microorganisms. In the treatment of ocular rosacea drugs of local and systemic action are used. Systemic therapy includes tetracycline and macrolide antibiotics and angioprotectors. Local therapy is associated with the use of artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and local antibiotics. In severe cases of ocular rosacea surgical management is required.

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Physiotherapy in diseases of the anterior segment of the eye

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 941-945
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Nazarova Е.М., Azamatova G.A., Akhtyamov A.E., Iseeva D.R.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

In the literature review were considered both well-established and modern physiotherapeutic methods used in the treatment of diseases of the anterior eye segment. Also, were presented the methods of combined effects of physical factors and pharmacological drugs, new methods of physiotherapy effects, were described the advantages and disadvantages, reinforcing the well-established recommendations of new modifications based on clinical trials.

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Ophthalmic medicinal films in the prevention of infectious and inflammatory complications

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 933-938
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Review
Authors: Aznabaev М.Т., Azamatova G.A., Gaysina G.Ya.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

This review focuses on prolonged dosage form — ophthalmic medicinal films. The composition, method of manufacturing the main eye films used in ophthalmology, the mechanism of prolongation of the immobilized drug substance are considered. The evacuation of the antibiotic from the polymer matrix, the pharmacokinetics of the drug, the therapeutic effect of the use of films was studied. When using eye films with an antibiotic in the chamber moisture of the eye, a therapeutically effective concentration of the drug substance is created and maintained for a long time. Ophthalmic medicinal films have significant advantages over the widely used methods of preoperative prevention of infection complications. Of great interest are eye films with fluoroquinolones based on a polysaccharide-modified matrix. Developed ophthalmic medicinal films have, in addition to the specific biological effects of an effective antibiotic, additional desired properties. The most promising forms of eye films for the prevention and treatment of intraocular infection are highlighted.

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The thermal safety of system for ultrasonic aspiration of lens cortex

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 919-922
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Idrisova G.M.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

The purpose of work is an experimental evaluation of the thermal safety of system for aspiration of lens cortex with the possibility of additional dosed low power ultrasonic. Material and Methods. The system for aspiration of cortex with the possibility of additional dosed low power ultrasonic consists of a specially designed ultrasonic instrument with a 21G tip and irrigation instrument with a 21G tip. Remote infrared thermometry (thermal imager Testo 882, Germany) was performed. In experiments a pig eyes were used (n=10). The eye was fixed in a titanium eye-holder, the tip of the ultrasonic instrument was inserted up through a 1.1 mm paracentesis on the meridian for 9 hours, the irrigation tip on the meridian for 3 hours. The initial temperature was recorded after irrigation and aspiration activation. Then ultrasound was activated (power 30%, activation time 10 s) and the final temperature was recorded. The rise in temperature was estimated as the difference between the final and initial temperatures. The software Testo IRSoft version 4.3 was used to process the images. Results. The average temperature rise in all experiment was 5.1±1.4°C. The maximum recorded temperature in the experiments were 33.5°C. Conclusion. Critical level of temperature for corneal burns was not reached in all of experiments. Conducted thermometric studies allow to conclude that the developed system for aspiration of lens cortex with the possibility of additional dosed low power ultrasonic is thermally safe.

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Thermal imaging characteristics of ultrasonic and pneumatic guillotine 25 gauge vitrectors

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 916-919
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Aznabaev В.М., Dibaev T.N., Mukhamadeev T.R., Vafiev A.S., Shavaliev I.Kh.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care, ZAO Optimedservis
Summary:

Purpose: to analyze thermal characteristics of ultrasonic and pneumatic guillotine 25G vitrectors in the experiment. Materials and Methods. In vitro studies were performed using Testo 882 thermal imager under various conditions for a more complete assessment of thermal characteristics of 25G ultrasonic vitrector and 25G pneumatic guillotine vitrector. First experiment was carried out in normal saline solution of room temperature, second experiment was performed in air medium. Results. It was found that during operation of ultrasonic and pneumatic guillotine vitrectors, the temperature threshold of 45°C, which is critical for thermal damage to retinal tissue, was not reached in all experiments. Under severe conditions (working in the air medium without cooling of vitrector tip), different localization of the heating zone in ultrasonic (at proximal part of the needle) and pneumatic (at distal part, near the port) vitrectors was detected. Conclusion. In experimental conditions, the thermal safety of ultrasonic and pneumatic guillotine vitrectors of caliber 25G has been proved by the method of infrared thermal imaging.

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Autonomous device for registration of direct current potential of eye in experiment and clinic

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 910-913
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Author's opinion
Authors: Mukhamadeev T.R., Yamgutdinov R.R., Vafiev A.S., Kalmetyev A.Kh., Yamlikhanov A.G., Tumashinov V.N.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care, ZAO Optimedservis
Summary:

 The article presents an autonomous device for recording of direct current potential of eye at rest and at different illumination levels to assess the functional state of the photoreceptor— retinal pigment epithelium complex in experiments on laboratory animals and in clinical practice including vitreoretinal surgery.

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Light-induced total electrical activity of retina in models of particular disorders in vivo and in vitro

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 903-909
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Mukhamadeev T.R., Ahmadeev R.R.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

Aim: to conduct an electrophysiological study of functional state of retina under the influence of ophthalmological surgical and typical pathogenic factors on various experimental models. Material and Methods. Experimental registration of electroretinogram (ERG) and total receptor potential (TRP) in vivo and in vitro under influence of various pathogenic factors. Results. It was shown that there is a slight decrease in the amplitude of the ERG in the early postoperative period after vitreoretinal surgery in rabbits followed by almost complete restoration of the electroretinogram to its original values. Registration of electrical activity of isolated retina of amphibians showed a rapid inhibition of a-, b- and d-waves of ERG during anoxia and their recovery during re-oxygenation. TRP inhibition during anoxia is developed more slowly than ERG inhibition, but its recovery does not occur during re-oxygenation. Preparations of isolated retinas with preserved pigment epithelium were much more resistant to oxygen deficiency. The results are discussed from a neurophysiological point of view and are consistent with the paradigm of retinal remodeling in experimental pathology with the leading role of neural mechanisms. Conclusion. The most adequate and effective methodological approach to assess the impact of typical and specific pathogenetic factors on the overall functional state of the retina is to register the total electrical activity of the retina in models in vivo. Studies of more subtle changes at the receptor, neuronal and interneuronal levels under the influence of various extreme factors on the retina are more expedient to carry out on in vitro models with registration of both total and local activity.

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Ретроспективный анализ биометрических характеристик и локализации увеальной меланомы по данным ультразвукового дуплексного сканирования орбиты

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 900-902
Heading: Ophtalmology Article type: Original article
Authors: Азнабаев Б.М., Александров А.А., Ишбулатова A.M.
Organization: Bashkir State Medical University of the Russian Health Care
Summary:

Цель: провести ретроспективный анализ биометрических характеристик и локализации увеальной меланомы по данным ультразвукового дуплексного сканирования орбиты. Материал и методы. В Центре лазерного восстановления зрения «Оптимед» г. Уфы за 2017-2018 гг. исследованы 22 пациента с объемным образованием сосудистой оболочки глаза — меланомой. Соотношение больных мужчин и женщин 1:1 (11 мужчин и 11 женщин). Возраст обследованных пациентов варьировался от 46 до 89 лет. Результаты. По данным проведенных ультразвуковых дуплексных сканирований орбиты чаще отмечалась парамакулярная локализация опухоли (72,2%). Высота проминенции объемных образований в среднем составила 7,6±4,6 мм, ширина основания 10,1±4,1 мм. У 20 пациентов (90,9%) определялся кровоток над объемным образованием. В 54,5% случаев наблюдалась вторичная отслойка сетчатки. Заключение. Ультразвуковое дуплексное сканирование орбиты является информативным неинвазивным инструментально-диагностическим методом, позволяющим выявлять увеальную меланому на ранней стадии.

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