Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Oncology

Diagnostic value of bio-markers in the prognosis of postoperative relapses and metastases in patients with breast cancer

Year: 2017, volume 13 Issue: №2 Pages: 239-244
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Cheburkayeva M.Yu., Zakharova N.B., Fedorov V.E., Teryoshkina N.E., Gergenreter Yu.S.
Organization: Regional Oncology center №2, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: to improve the diagnosis of relapse and metastasis of breast cancer in the postoperative period. Material and methods. 123 women were examined. Of these, 30 practically healthy women made up a control group, 20 women had benign breast diseases, 73 had breast cancer. The patients with ВС before the surgical intervention were divided into groups according to the stage of the disease. The 1st group consisted of 30 practically healthy women. In the second group — 20 women with fibroadenomas of the breast. In the third group — 33 women with l-ll stages of breast cancer without regional metastases. The 4th group consisted of 22 women with stage II breast cancer with regional metastases, in the 5th group — 18 patients with stage III breast cancer. After surgery, 68 patients were re-examined and divided into 2 analytical groups. The 6th group included women without clinical manifestations of relapses and metastases in the postoperative period — 44 (64.7%). Group 7 consisted of 24 (35.3%) women who had metastasis and local recurrences of the disease in the postoperative period. To determine the content of fetal proteins (Ca-15-3, Ca-125, REA), IL-8 and VEGF, commercial sets of reagents for solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used. Results. Analysis of the data obtained showed that the most significant increase in serum and plasma VEGF levels occurred in breast cancer patients with clinical signs of metastasis and recurrence of the disease. Of fetal proteins, a significant increase in blood content showed Ca15-3 and CEA. Conclusion. We can assume that in patients with breast cancer only in the postoperative period, the rise in VEGF was associated with the growth of tumor tissue and the development of invasion and metastasis.

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Transarterial chemoembolization for primary and metastatic liver tumors

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №4 Pages: 716-720
Heading: Oncology Article type: Review
Authors: Popov M.V., Aronov M.S., Voskanyan S.E., Karpova O.V.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The literature review presents the methodology of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) — widely used method of treatment of primary and secondary liver tumors. The TACE role as a neoadjuvant therapy and the role in the management of unresectable primary and secondary liver tumors are shown. The morphofunctional basis of TACE, benefits of superselective intra-arterial administration of cytostatic agents especially in combination with ischemic impact on a tumor are described. The subject of the choice of the chemotherapeutic agent is also touched; modern drug-loaded microspheres which allow the use of higher doses of the chemotherapeutic drug without increasing systemic effect and prolong its effect on tumor are described. Lack of correlation of presence and severity of a post-embolization syndrome with success of the procedure is noted.

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Role of a preoperative distal and proximal embolization of the right branch of the portal vein at surgical treatment of a liver malignant tumors

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №4 Pages: 713-716
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Popov M.V., Voskanyan S.E., Aronov M.S., Karpova O.V.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Objective: assessment of safety and efficiency of application of the method of the distal and proximal embolization of the right branch of a portal vein using an occluder for preventive increase of the small future remaining liver amount in case of the planned resection. Material and methods. In the Burnazyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center that method was used in two cases: metastasises of bladder cancer in one case and of colorectal cancer in second case. Patients were males aged 57 and 64. Measuring the amount of future remaining liver volume was carried out with the CT-volumetry. Portal vein embolization of the right branch was carried out by transhepatic ipsilateral access using polyvinyl alcohol particles and occluder AVP II. Results. As a result in both cases the gain (9 and 24%), sufficient for performance of a resection, of the remaining liver volume was noted; the progression of the tumor process and periop-erative complications were not observed. Conclusion. Distal and proximal preoperative portal vein embolization is an effective and promising method, allowing surgeons to increase the number of operable patients and reduce the risk of postoperative liver failure.

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"Machine vision" application in digital dermoscopy for suspected melanoma of the skin

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №2 Pages: 281-285
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Kozlov S.V., Neretin E.Yu., Kukolkina V.V.
Organization: Samara State Medical University
Summary:

This article discusses one of the problems of oncology diagnosis of melanoma. Relevance of the topic has been supported by the fact that the annual incidence of patients with cancer pathology is constantly increasing. Various methods of diagnostics have been determined, but at the same time early diagnosis of melanoma is a problem. The aim is to reveal the possibilities of automated data processing during digital dermoscopy of melanoma in a specialized center. To solve this problem, the following materials and methods have been used: records for the period of 16 years (1996-2010), annual reports of Samara Regional Clinical Oncology Center of newly diagnosed melanoma of skin, annual statistical reports to the State Statistical Committee. The results indicate higher diagnostic accuracy in a specialized center and the advantages of digital dermoscopy in comparison with visual inspection, comparable with a qualified inspection in a specialized center. The article concludes that the possibility of use of this expert system on specialized levels is considered as a secondary factor in the diagnosis and the choice of treatment.

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Ultrasound Diagnostics of Liver Cancer

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №1 Pages: 103-107
Heading: Oncology Article type: Review
Authors: Schukina О.Е.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The literature review presents opportunities of the contemporary ultrasound technologies in diagnostics of liver cancer; diagnostic criteria have been determined; the accuracy degree of the ultrasound method in grey-scale and Doppler imaging have been also revealed.

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Background of photon-capture therapy principle of malignant cancer treatment

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 878-881
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Sheino I.N., Izhevskij P. W., Lipengolts A.A.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: the study of the physical effect of the local dose increasing in biological tissue at the gadolinium-containing drug under the influence of X-ray radiation. Material and Methods. Experimental and three independent numerical methods are obtained distribution of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantom containing a model of the tumor with a given concentration of gadolinium. Results. The presence of a gadolinium-containing drug in the biological tissue (1% Gd by weight) leads to a local increase of an absorbed dose up to 2 times under the influence of X-ray radiation. The difference in the results obtained calculated and experimental methods does not exceed 12%. Conclusion. The results of the study confirmed the basic theoretical background photon capture therapy, as well as the legal use of methods of mathematic modeling of the process of forming radiation in biological tissue, necessary for dosimetric photon capture therapy planning.

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Laser thermal therapy is increasingly being used in clinical practice for cancer treatment. Its major limitation is associated with low spatial selectivity. This restriction may be excluded by the use of plasmon-resonant gold nanoparticles as photothermal

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 700-706
Heading: Oncology Article type: Review
Authors: Chumakov D.S., Basko M.V., Dikht N.I., Bucharskaya A.B., Rodionova Т.I., Terentyuk G.S.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University, Saratov state university
Summary:

Laser thermal therapy is increasingly being used in clinical practice for cancer treatment. Its major limitation is associated with low spatial selectivity. This restriction may be excluded by the use of plasmon-resonant gold nanoparticles as photothermal sensitizers. Tunable synthesis, unique optical properties and low toxicity make gold nanostructures promising as a therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. The research work has presented the experimental data that concern the use of plasmon photothermal therapy for the treatment of transplanted and induced tumors of laboratory animals. Taking into consideration the research results it is determined that the transition of this therapeutic technology into the clinical practice can be predicted.

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Correction of immune disorders in patients with malignant tumors at level of craniovertebral junction and upper cervical spine

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №2 Pages: 295-301
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Bazhanov S.P., Uljanov V.Yu., Norkin I.A., Gulyaev D.A.
Organization: Russian Scientific Research Institute of Neurosurgery n.a. Professor A. L. Polenov
Summary:

Objective: To study the cellular and humoral immunity in patients with malignant tumors of the upper cervical spine. Material and methods: The study included 22 patients with malignant tumors of the craniovertebral junction and upper cervical spine. To assess the function of the immune system the methods of population and subpopulation immuno-phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes have been applied. Cytokine parameters and functional status (cytotoxic) activity of NK-cells have been studied using immunofermental methods. The indices have been presented in absolute and relative terms. All the patients have been subjected to the adjuvant therapy. Results: Correction of cellular immunity has led to significant increase in CD3 + (T-lymphocytes) and CD3 + CD8 + (T-killers). Cytokine levels in the groups studied in the dynamics have not been significantly altered. The changes of cytotoxic (functional) activity of NK-cells in the first group after the combined treatment have been considered to be higher than before the treatment. Cytotoxic index of (functional) activity of NK-cells in the second group under the study after the combined treatment has been determined to be lower than before the treatment. Conclusion: It has been found out that the application of complex treatment accompanied by immunotropic therapy may positively influence the immune status.

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Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №1 Pages: 88-91
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Kozlov S.V., Neretin Е.У.
Organization: Samara State Medical University
Summary:

The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatoscopy. The method may be applied to radiometry screening study. Fluorescence diagnostics is effective for the differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanocytic nevi. In conclusion it has been proved the need for an integrated approach to the diagnostics of melanoma of skin, depending on the different clinical situations.

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Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process

Year: 2011, volume 7 Issue: №3 Pages: 658-660
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Zyablov Е. V., Chesnokova N.P., Barsukov V. Yu.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

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