Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Sociology of Medicine

Transformation of the personal identifcation system in the context of severe somatic disease

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 347-352
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Orlova M.M.
Organization: Saratov National Research University n.a. N. G. Chernyshevsky
Summary:

Resocialization of persons in a situation of illness determines one of the most important tasks of a health care system, namely, restoration of social opportunities of a patient. Objective: psychological analysis of identity system transformation of identifcations in a situation of a severe physical disease. Material and Methods. The study included a random sample of men and women aged 18–65: patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) (n=116), and the control group (n=181). The following methods have been used: questionnaire, personal self-conception survey by S. R. Panteleev; R. Lazarus» study coping strategies; «Life style index»; family environment scale (FES) adapted by S. Y. Kupriyanov; WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL); M. Kuhn»s test «Who am I?»; J. Rotter»s subjective control level test questionnaire; V. N. Dovlatova»s questionnaire for identifying cognitive inclination to dependency. Results. Signifcant diferences (p=0.01) in expression of identity indicators were obtained, which allowed to identify features of identifcation system characteristic of patients with ischemic heart disease without disability and with disability. Diferences in identifcation predictors with social roles, physical characteristics, negative self-identifcation and total number of self-descriptions were identifed using the regression analysis data. Conclusion. Change of personality of a patient with ischemic heart disease can be interpreted as othering and leads to difculties in social interactions and loss of opportunity to rely on their own personality, which requires psychotherapy. Socialization as a basic characteristic of modern society defnes one of the most important tasks of medical and social assistance to the population, namely, the restoration of the social capabilities of the patient. An analysis of the internal picture of the disease in patients with chronic somatic diseases in a social context makes it possible to determine the tasks of re-socialization in a situation of disability.

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Assessment of behavioral risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among medical students

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №2 Pages: 342-347
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Balashova М.Е., Shemetova G.N., Gubanova G.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim: assessment of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in medical students to improve measures for the formation of a healthy lifestyle. Material and Methods. In order to identify risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases, a questionnaire method was used. A survey included 80 frst- year students and 80 sixth-year students of medical school. The questionnaire included information about the sex, age, smoking and alcohol consumption, physical activity, and nutrition. Results. Respondents are characterized by a high frequency of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (СNCD): low physical activity (60.0 %), poor diet (81.0 %), smoking (16.2 %). The combination of risk factors for the development of СNCD was revealed in 31.8 % of students. Conclusion. The high frequency of risk factors for CNS among students indicates the need to improve measures to increase the efectiveness of prevention, therapeutic measures and the formation of a healthy lifestyle.

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Readiness to realize the skills of professional communication among senior students of a medical university

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 691-695
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Shemetova G.N., Sidorova N.V., Gubanova G.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim: to assess the readiness for effective communication of senior students of medical university. Material and Methods. A survey of 158 students of the 5th and 6th courses of the medical faculty of SSMU was conducted in February 2017 according to the original questionnaire aimed at assessing the theoretical knowledge in the field of communication and readiness to communicate with patients in practice. Results. The study revealed a number of problematic issues related to the communicative competence of senior students of the medical University. Most respondents (88%) rated their training in communication technologies as high and sufficient, and knowledge of theoretical issues does not always meet the requirements of today. Despite the support of the majority of students for a paternalistic approach to the relationship between the doctor and the patient (44% in general, 94,7% among sixth- year students), many respondents (85%) agreed with the involvement of the patient in the process of discussing the planned diagnostic and therapeutic measures, more than half of the students (57,6%) expressed a desire to undergo additional training on the basics of communication. Conclusion. In accordance with the new challenges in the native health care training of graduates of medical universities should include the formation and improvement of communicative competence with the realization that in the modern system of relations the Central person is a patient with his problems and

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Medical and organizational issues of patients' preoperative fears management (analytical review)

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 686-690
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Review
Authors: Fedonnikov A.S., Katkova A.V., Andriyanova E.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

 The article deals with the problem of preoperative patient fears. Specific characteristics of preoperative fears and the mechanisms of their occurrence were described. According to the scientific literature analysis the typology of preoperative fears was performed. Within the framework of the author's approach the directions of the following theoretic understanding and practical solutions of indicated problem were presented. They included health managers focusing on interpersonal communication of patient and medical specialist; further analysis of factor influencing interpersonal communication of patient and medical specialist under disease condition requiring surgery; development of psychologically based medical care and postoperative rehabilitation quality indicators.

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Transplantation tourism as an international problem: prerequisites and ways of prevention

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 683-685
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Author's opinion
Authors: Romanov S.V., Abaeva O.P.
Organization: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Volga District Medical Center of FMBA
Summary:

The purpose of scientific work was to substantiate the relevance ofthe problem of transplant tourism, which is a way for a recipient to obtain an organ for transplantation bypassing national wait lists by finding a donor in a foreign country on a commercial basis. The authors have performed analysis of literary sources related to issues ofthe development of transplant tourism around the world, origins of its existence as well as possible ways to prevent the following practive. In conclusion, authors underline the necessity to establish the development of transplantology based on principles of gracious organ donations and fairness in terms of recipient election.

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Medical students representations on socially significant aspects of influenza prevention

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №4 Pages: 680-682
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Mikhailova E.V., Malugina T.N., Levin D.Yu., Averianov А.Р., Serdyukov A.Yu., Zheleznikov P.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The aim of the study is to assess the attitude to influenza prevention among medical students. Material and Methods. The survey of first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky was conducted (n=110). Results included an analysis of the prevalence of different influenza prevention methods. We have identified the main causes of failures of specific influenza prevention and identified the most common ways of non-specific prevention. Conclusion. Despite the fact that the majority of students consider it necessary to carry out specific prevention of influenza, active immunization is used only by 15% of the surveyed students. Others prefer the methods of nonspecific prophylaxis of influenza.

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Application of financial motivation factors for organ donors: foreign experience and Russian attitude

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №3 Pages: 448-450
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Author's opinion
Authors: Romanov S.V.
Organization: Volga District Medical Center of FMBA
Summary:

The purpose of the article was to analyze the world practice of the means of financial motivation for organ donors as well as the attitude of Russians towards it. As the results have shown, means of financial stimulation are widely applied to living organ donors in the world. Such means are mainly illegal, most often targeting the most vulnerable social groups and current attempts to stop such practices are not successful. Among all nations, Iran is the only one country whose system of organ transplantation includes the idea of rewarding a living donor. Such practice has been supported by several specialists, some of them from the US. In the world, the ways of financial support of the families of posthumous donors also exist. Such practice has evoked controversial responses in Russia. In conclusion, it has been highlighted the necessity to conduct more informative works with different social groups with the aim to develop and support the principles of humanity and altruism of organ donation.

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Patients interviewing — an effective method of forming social competencies of medical students

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №3 Pages: 445-447
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Skryabina E.N., Aleksandrova O.L., Korneva Yu.M., Pasechnaya N.V., Kats Z.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The professionalism of a doctor is determined not only by scientific knowledge, but also by high moral qualities. Aim is the formation of the social competencies of the students of the medical university, concerning the personal qualities of the doctor. The authors used a self-developed questionnaire, which included questions relating to patients' characteristics (gender, level of education, disease origin and its duration) and to attending physician (work experience, theoretical and practical skills, moral qualities). Material and Methods. Questioning of 100 patients of the rheumatologi-cal department of the State Regional Hospital of Saratov was performed by students of the Saratov Medical University. Results. The survey showed that most patients considered the moral qualities of a doctor to be very important and they determined the successful treatment of patients. The ineffectiveness of treatment is largely due to loss of confidence in doctor. Conclusion. Questioning of patients allowed students to be convinced of the importance of formation of high moral qualities of a doctor as they help mutual understanding of a doctor and a patient, increase treatment efficiency.

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Risks of sexual relations in representations of students

Year: 2018, volume 14 Issue: №2 Pages: 297-301
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Chernyshkova E.V., Zaviyalov A.l., Tupikin D.V., Denishev R.R., Uzhakhov A.M., Uzhakhov T.M., Andriyanova E.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

.The goal of the workwasto determine on the basis of sociological research the representation of medical students about the possible risks of sexual relations. Materials and methods. The survey of 659 students of medical and pediatric faculties of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky and Volgograd State Medical University. Results of the research demonstrate that the most significant risks of sexual relations considered by the students are sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy. However, despite a high level of awareness of probability of their occurrence less than a half of the students always use necessary remedies to avoid these risks, this fact allows to refer students to a group with an increased risk of STI and unwanted pregnancy. It is determined that self-treatment practice in regard to STI is not wild-spread among medical students due to the presence of deeper knowledge about reproduc- tive health. Conclusion. The analysis of author's research data and the works devoted to the problem of sexual relations risks among youth allows to state the imbalance between students' knowledge of sexual contacts risks and their real behavioral practices, and a significant decrease in the level of preventive work. Medical students can be considered as a resource for optimizing this type of work with students of high schools, colleges and other universities.

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Medical and ethical aspects of gene therapy

Year: 2017, volume 13 Issue: №4 Pages: 859-861
Heading: Sociology of Medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Yupatov V.D., Yalieva L.K., Vorfolomeev S.A., Fakhrudinova E.R.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The article is to review the main moral, ethical and legal issues of genomics. In connection with the rapid development of molecular biology, deciphering the structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and breakthrough in gene editing, this topic is extremely relevant today. The author tries to answer the questions: 1) whether a person has the right to intervene into the natural mechanisms of existence of living organisms; 2) what is the role of genetic engineering and gene therapy in modern society?

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