Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Chesnokova N. P.

Saratov State Medical University, Department of Pathophysiology, Professor, Doctor of Medical Science

Professor VitaliyViktorovich Morrison (to the birth anniversary)

Year: 2019, volume 15 Issue: №1 Pages: 124-126
Heading: anniversary Article type: Short message
Authors: Chesnokova N.P., Zavyalov A.l., Afanasyeva G.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The article is devoted to the 75th birth anniversary of Vitaliy Viktorovich Morrison, Professor and Merited Worker of Higher Education of the Russian Federation. Keywords: V.V. Morrison, anniversary.

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. Modern concepts on carcinogenesis: the value of insufficiency of malignant cell elimination mechanisms in the tumor progression in case of neoplasia at different localizations

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №1 Pages: 32-35
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: Chesnokova N.P., Morrison V.V., Barsukov V.Yu., Ponukalina E.M., Agabekov A.l.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The article presents the review of contemporary concepts of tumor induction mechanisms applicable for neoplastic transformation, promotion and proliferation. The paper also contains an in-depth analysis of results of authors' own observations and study of immunological protection mechanisms of a significant number of patients diagnosed with oncopathologies of mammary and thyroid glands as well as adenocarcinoma of ascending colon. We have established common development patterns of T-cell and B-cell immunodeficiencies that are not influenced by location and proliferation of neoplastic tumors; the progress of such immunodeficincies, however, depends on regional metastasis development. Thus, we can conclude that insufficiency of immunological defense mechanisms leading to disruption of maligned cell elimination process is the primary pathogenic factor for metastatic tumor development.

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Molecular and cellular mechanisms of destabilization of membranes and prenatal discharge of amniotic fluid

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 644-648
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Mikhaylov А.V., Dyatlova L.I., Chesnokova N.P., Ponukalina Е.V., Glukhova T.N.
Organization: Perinatal Centre, Saratov , Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Purpose: to establish the role of activation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant deficiency of blood and amniotic fluid in the destabilization of membranes with early prenatal discharge of amniotic fluid. Material and methods. The analysis of lipid peroxidation products content in blood and amniotic fluid — diene conjugates (DC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the quantitative determination of total peroxides (OxyStat), the estimation of the total antioxidant status (TAS), the activity of SOD and the content of ceruloplasmin in 20 pregnant with premature rupture of membranes in the gestation period of 22-34 weeks, were hospitalized at the Department of Pathology of Pregnancy of Saratov Perinatal Center in 2012. DC and MDA determination was carried out by conventional spectrophotometric methods of research, quantitative determination of peroxides (OxyStat) was carried out by enzyme immunoassay analyzer «Alfa Prime» («Meredith Diagnostics», 2008 using chemicals made by the company «Bender Medsystems»). The study of antioxidant status of serum and amniotic fluid was performed by enzyme immunoassay analyzer «Alfa Prime» («Meredith Diagnostics», England, 2008). Reagents («Bender Medsystems», Austria) were used to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS) and the SOD activity. To assess the content of ceruloplasmin reagent «Sentinel» (Italy) was used. Results. Indicators of lipid peroxidation in blood and amniotic fluid and anti-radical protection of biological membranes of cells and body fluids in the "mother-placenta-fetus" increased. Conclusion. Systemic activation of lipid peroxidation has been proved to be a
pathogenetic factor in the failure of membranes in prenatal discharge of amniotic fluid. The increase in the blood levels of lipid peroxidation products on the background of the activation of antioxidant system is considered as a prognostic sign of abortion.

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Changes in the cytokine profile of patients blood with premature rupture of amniotic membranes and their pathogenic significance

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №2 Pages: 224-229
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Mikhaylov А.V., Dyatlova L.I., Chesnokova N.P., Ponukalina E.V., Glukhova T.N.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University, Perinatal Centre, Saratov
Summary:

Purpose: Pathogenetic study of new diagnostic and prognostic criteria for evaluation of pregnancy in terms of the cytokine profile of blood. Materials and methods: The analysis of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood of 50 pregnant women with preterm rupture of membranes in gestation of 22-34 weeks, who were treated at the Department of Pathology in pregnancy of Saratov Perinatal Center in 2012, was performed. The method of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using test systems «Vector— Best» (Novosibirsk, Russia). Results:.Clinical and laboratory examination revealed an increase levels of IL-1(3, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, while reducing the content of IL-4, IL-10 in blood. Conclusion: Manifest signs of possibility of prenatal rupture of membranes and premature labour in 22-34 weeks gestation are combined with increasing of IL-1(3, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a, IL-2 and with decreasing of IL-10, IL-4 level in the blood, which indicates the need for monitoring the content of these cytokines in the blood for the diagnosis and prognosis of pregnancy.

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Role of functional activity abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system in pathogenesis of neoplastic proliferation in patients with breast cancer

Year: 2012, volume 8 Issue: №4 Pages: 915-919
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Chesnokova N.P., Barsukov V.Yu., Zlobnova О.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The research goal is to determine the pathogenic relationship between the dynamic changes of content of individual fractions of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and somatotropic hormone in blood of patients with breast cancer from the stage of neoplasia spread. Methods: The authors have performed comparative evaluation of functional state of hypothalamic — pituitary — gonadal system in 128 patients with infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma (clinically nodular pathology form) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis. Results: Examination of hormone profile of peripheral blood of patients with nodular breast cancer has revealed presence of centrogenous hormone influence on peripheral glands supplied by hormones of hypothalamic — pituitary system such as follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, these patients being of reproductive, climacteric and post-menopausal ages. At the same time, progress of initial stages of neoplastic proliferation in patients with breast cancer has been naturally accompanied by increase of estradiol level in blood, decrease of progesterone and estriol levels in blood. These levels have been parallel to the stage of neoplastic process. Hormone disbalance has been also characterized by increase of somatotropic hormone level in blood of patients with breast cancer. Hormone level increasing has been progressed by metastasizing neoplastic cells. Conclusion: The leading role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in patients of different age groups should be assigned to the development of hormone disbalance. It should be noted that the principle of «feedback» between the central hormone influences and blood levels of hormones of peripheral glands has not been determined.

Keywords: breast cancer
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Haemopoiesis and its regulation at various stages of haemopoietic cell differentiation of bone marrow

Year: 2012, volume 8 Issue: №3 Pages: 711-719
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: Chesnokova N.P., Morrison V.V., Ponukalina Е.V., Zhevak Т.N., Afanasieva G.A., Polutova N.V., Newazhay Т.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Analysis of literature review has presented authors' opinion about regularities of consistent change of haemopoietic cell differentiation steps in bone marrow. Particular attention has been paid to the role of numerous cytokines (stem cell factor, fit-3ligand, interleukine-3, interleukine-4, interleukine-6, interleukine-7, tumor necrosis factor, colony stimulating factors, erythropoietin, thrombopoietin) in mechanisms of myelo-, erythro- and thrombocytopoiesis in the normal conditions. Results of investigation have showed the important significance of blood cytokine profile disturbances in pathogenesis of tumor progression in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

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Regularities of cytokine status changes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and their role in pathogenesis of progressive forms of disease

Year: 2012, volume 8 Issue: №2 Pages: 203-209
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Zhevak T.N., Chesnokova N.P., Shelekhova T.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The aim of the research is to study and to analyze results of investigations of cytokine blood profile in patients with B-cellular chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Materials and methods: Complex investigation of 60 patients with B-cellular chronic lymphocytic leukaemia has been carried out. Patients have been randomized into 4 groups of observation according to the severety of disease (classification of Rai K. R., 1975). Accepted methods of somatic status and he-matologic indices as well as method of flow cytometry for establishment of B-lymphocytes immune phenotype have been used. Cytokine levels were detected by enzyme immunodetection. Results: Regular peculiarity of cytokine status change in different forms of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia development has been an increase of interleukine-4, interleukine-6, interleukine-7, interleukine-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in serum that is one of the main pathogenetic factor of intercellular interaction abnormality in lymphoid tissue in the chronic lymphocytic leukaemia development. Conclusion: Increased indications of cytokines content in blood may be used as diagnostic criteria of pathology severity and in evaluation of effectiveness of complex therapy of the disease, as well as a classification sign of severity of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

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Pathogenetic interrelation of disturbances in metabolic status, cell composition and rheological properties of blood in surface thermal injuries, their diagnostic and prognostic significance

Year: 2011, volume 7 Issue: №4 Pages: 795-800
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Original article
Authors: Polutova N.V., Chesnokova N.P., Ostrovsky N.V., Newazhai Т.A.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim. To study the interrelation between the nature of system metabolic disturbances, rheological properties and cell composition of peripheral blood and the dynamics of the development of alterative and necrotic, regenerative and proliferative processes in a zone of surface thermal injury of the skin. Materials and methods. Complex clinical and laboratory examination of 30 patients suffering from surface burns (first-, second-, and third A degrees) was conducted. Results and conclusion: The examination allowed determining the interrelation of the severity of local destructive changes in a thermal injury zone and the nature of system metabolic disturbances typical for the system inflammatory response syndrome with the degree of lipid peroxidation process activation, insufficient activity of antioxidant blood system, increase in blood viscosity properties and cell composition

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Hormonal status disturbances in papillary cancer of thyroid gland at different stages of neoplastic process

Year: 2011, volume 7 Issue: №3 Pages: 658-660
Heading: Oncology Article type: Original article
Authors: Zyablov Е. V., Chesnokova N.P., Barsukov V. Yu.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The research goal is a comparative evaluation of indicators of hormonal status disorders in patients with papillary thyroid cancer during the course of neoplastic process. The comparative evaluation of indicators of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine and titers of autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase level in blood in 35 patients with papillary thyroid cancer at l-ll stages and in 33 patients — at III-IV stages of disease has been carried out. The study has found that hormonal changes in papillary thyroid cancer include the reduction of thyroxine in blood. In case of papillary thyroid cancer the level of thyroid stimulating hormone is increased at various stages of the spread of neoplasia

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Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: contemporary conceptions of etiology, pathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical manifestations (review)

Year: 2011, volume 7 Issue: №2 Pages: 376-385
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: Zhevak T.N., Chesnokova N.P., Shelekhova T.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The research work presents an analysis of literature review and results of investigations on the problems of etiology, pathogenesis, classification and peculiarities of clinical manifestations of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Special attention is paid to both contemporary conceptions of carcinogenesis, reflecting the role of proto-oncogenes activation, an-tioncogenes and apoptosis genes suppression in mechanisms of neoplasia development and «specific mechanisms» of oncogenic transformation induction of B-lymphocytes and the subsequent development of the stages of promotion, progression and marked clinical manifestations of formation. Possibility of further improvement of use of immune phe-notype character and oncomarkers in diagnostics of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia clinical variants and in evaluation of effectiveness of its therapy has been indicated in the article

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