Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

heart

Pathomorphological cardial changes in the sudden infant death syndrome

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №1 Pages: 48-52
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Rozumny D.V.
Organization: Samara State Medical University
Summary:

In order to establish the relationship between the timing of fetal obliteration of communication and expression remodeling of the heart chambers, as one of the possible causative factors of SIDS, the selected material has been based on macromorphometric study. Material included 43 hearts from infants who died of SIDS. The control group consisted of 48 hearts of children suddenly dead from aspiration of gastric contents and infectious disease. The methods composed a macroscopic examination of the heart by the method of separate weighing of the complex morphometric studies, histological examination (used the following stains: hematoxylin and eosin, picrofuchsin by Van Gieson, Nissl's stain), immunohistochemical method using markers of neurofilament. The results revealed that in children who died of SIDS, obliteration of the fetal communication occurs essentially in the late period —to the age of 8 months, and the mass of the left and right ventricles of the heart exceeds the age limit of normal due to the prevalence of ventricular muscle mass and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In all parts of the heart subendocardial fibrosis in the ventricles — pronounced interstitial fibrosis has been observed. In the interatrial septum at the location at the oval window morphometric study resulted in significant predominance area percentage of connective tissue in relation to the muscle tissue. On histological sections elements of the nervous tissue — randomly arranged nerve ganglia with degenerative changes and nerve fibers were identified. Conclusion. Finally, it should be noted that the growth of cardiosclerosis in all parts of the heart in newborns and infants, who died suddenly from SIDS, extends the terms of obliteration of fetal communications, and degenerative changes in the nerve ganglia that lead to the disturbance of supply and distribution of nerve impulses that pass through them. These factors contribute to the development of hemodynamic disturbances and may be important in the development of sudden death in children.

AttachmentSize
2014_01_48-52.pdf2.39 MB

Cardiac biopotentials influence on central nervous system functioning: first steps in hypothesis verification

Year: 2012, volume 8 Issue: №4 Pages: 947-953
Heading: Internal Diseases Article type: Original article
Authors: Shvarts Yu.G., Cherkasova S.A., Kondal'skaya Yu.O.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The research goal is to verify the hypothesis on influence of cardiac biopotentials on central nervous system. Materials: 20 healthy individuals aged 18-26 years old have been participated in the investigations. Two groups composed of 10 patients each have been formed. Double increase in heart biopotentials by means of artificial impulse insertion between natural cardiac contractions has been modeled. Artificial impulses have been similar to unaffected ones, produced in a normal heart work. Additional impulses have been generated using external pacemaker and have been linked up with electrodes on the chest. They have been synchronized with the heart rhythm and located in-between R waves. The duration of those impulses has been fully matched to ventricular complex. Their amplitude has been adjusted individually depending on the height of R wave. Nervous system mobility has been used as the indicator reflecting the central nervous system functioning. Degree of mobility has been defined on the basis of tapping test results. The test has been repeated at specific intervals. Groups have been exposed to two adverse testing modes. Additional impulses have been conducted to the patients of group I within an hour over a period of the first and the third 15-minute intervals and to the patients of group II over a period of the second and the fourth 15-minute intervals. In the middle and in the end of each time interval tapping test has been carried out. After preliminary analysis two other modes of stimulation have been tested. The stimulation has been performed within the 40-minute course: over a period of the first 20-minute interval and vice versa. Results: Detailed evaluation has revealed that short-time increase of nervous processes has been checked in combination with decrease in their stability. Conclusion: The data obtained have shown that there is possible influence on central nervous system functioning. The article ends with prospects of further investigation.

AttachmentSize
201204-947-953.pdf1.03 MB

Evaluation of five-year risk of lethal outcome and development of cardiovascular disorders in patients with acute myocardial infarction on basis of 0.1-Hz rhythms synchronization in cardiovascular system

Year: 2010, volume 6 Issue: №2 Pages: 328-338
Heading: Internal Diseases Article type: Original article
Authors: KiselevA.R., Gridnev V.I., KaravaevA.S., O.M. Posnenkova., V.I. Ponomarenko., M.D. Prokhorov., B.P. Bezruchko.,V.A. Shvartz
Organization: Saratov National Research University n.a. N. G. Chernyshevsky, Saratov Institute of Cardiology, Russia, Saratov Branch of Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics n.a. V.A. Kotelnikov
Summary:

The research goal is to evaluate the impact of autonomic heart control indices on five-year risk of lethal outcome and development of cardiovascular disorders in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to study the dynam¬ics of indices in short- and long-term period. 125 patients with AMI (42% female), ages 30 to 83 years, were enrolled in prospective observational study. Observation period lasted 6 years. Control checking was carried out in 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and then annually. The dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) and the synchronization of 0.1-Hz rhythms of heart and microcirculation (S) were studied during the first year. Outcomes proved to be death, MI, stroke. Development of acute heart failure Killip 2-4 and indices S < 20% during the first week of AMI (х2 = 10,5, p = 0,005 for the Cox model) played a significant role in evaluation of five-year risk of death after AMI. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of index S < 20% during the first week of AMI were 76% and 43% correspondingly. The Cox model showed that indices of HRV and 0.1-Hz rhythms synchronization were not of great value in evaluation of five-year risk of death after AMI. The article concludes that indices S < 20% in patients with AMI possess better prognostic value than common clinical parameters

AttachmentSize
201002_328_338.pdf434.95 KB

PATHO-PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF TOBACCO SMOKING EFFECT ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Year: 2007, volume 3 Issue: №3 Pages: 49-52
Heading: Physiology and Pathophysiology Article type: Review
Authors: N.V. Novikova, A.I. Kodochigova, V.F. Kirichuk, D.S. Novikov, V.G. Halturina
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Modern patho-physiological mechanisms with the help of which tobacco smoking contributes to the development of cardiovascular pathology are represented in the review. The most significant of them are endothelial dysfunction, progressing of atherosclerotic processes, alteration of rheologic properties of blood, increase of carboxyhemoglobin levels, activation of sympathetic nervous system of the heart.

AttachmentSize
200703_049.pdf123.31 KB

Pathological Anatomy and Quantitative Analysis of morphologic dimensions of 1-Year Old Children Hearts in Case of Sudden Death at Home

Year: 2009, volume 5 Issue: №2 Pages: 148-150
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Yu. R. Yunusova
Organization: Samara State Medical University
Summary:

One hundred twenty-three babies died at home at the age of 1–12 months have been examined from 2004 till 2008. 39 babies died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The comparison group has been composed of 58 babies of the same age died at home from various diseases. Investigations have been performed in DGCB N1, Samara. About 95 % of babies died from SIDS at home during the first six months of their life, with top mortality between 1 till 3 months. There was sexual difference — 67 % of boys. The majority of home death cases have happened in summer — 49 babies (30%). Morphological investigations have been made including different heart weighting, histological and histometric examination of cardiomyocites. It has been revealed that in the group of babies died from SIDS the most constant symptoms have included: right heart hypertrophy, great heart weight variability, ventricular index.

AttachmentSize
200902_148_150.pdf270.06 KB