Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

local radiation injuries

Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №4 Pages: 637-644
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Galstyan I.A., Nadejina N.M., Suvorova L.A., Kashirina O.G., Nugis V.Ju.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL) range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

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Effectiveness of autologous cell products derived from adipose tissue for the treatment of severe local radiation injuries

Year: 2014, volume 10 Issue: №4 Pages: 838-844
Heading: radiation medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Eremin P.S., Pigaleva N.A., Murzabekov M.B., Lebedev V.G., Lazareva N.L., Eremin I.I., Pulin A.A., Osipov A.N., Bushmanov A.Yu., Kotenko K.V.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: to investigate the dynamics of ulcer surface healing depending on type of radiation ulcer and cell product in murine experimental model of severe local radiation injuries after exposure to X-rays. Material and Methods. Mature Wistar rats were used for experiments (males, weight 180-200 grams). Standard model of severe local radiation injuries was used: X-ray irradiation of animals on a modified RAP100-10 device. Isolation of the stromal-vascular fraction carried out by enzymatic treatment of adipose tissue. Autologous cells transplantation performed on day 20 after irradiation in the case of acute radiation injury model (early radiation ulcers) and day 120 in the case of long-term effects of radiation injury model (chronic radiation ulcers). As a positive control allogeneic MMSC derived from rat bone marrow were used. Results. Application of autologous cell products derived from adipose tissue in animal model of severe local radiation injuries was investigated for the first time. It was shown that usage of stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue for the treatment of early radiation injuries not only leads to better improvement (as compared with the use of MMSCs), but also pronounced therapeutic effect could be observed at an earlier time. On the model of long-term effects of radiation injuries therapeutic effect was observed for all cell products. Conclusion. Cell-based products derived from adipose tissue are promising material for future research and clinical application for treatment of local radiation injuriesK) Described method allows choosing treatment strategy basing on patient's individual characteristics and the type of local radiation injuries.

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Psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 897-901
Heading: radiation medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Metlyaeva N.A., Lartsev М.А., Shcherbatykh О.V., Bushmanov A.Yu.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: clinical psychophysiological assessment of social and psychophysiological adaptation of the patient with the remote effect of the III degree acute radiation syndrome, with local radiation injuries of heavy degree from the extremely uneven gamma and neutron radiation with the subsequent amputation of both feet at level in top / 3 shins, according to feature of its individual mental adaptation and the periods of its mental adaptation stages. Material and methods. The object of the research was a patient (born in 1939) who worked as an engineer in the National Research Centre (NRC "Kurchatov Institute") from 1963 to 2010, the senior researcher. Psychophysiological inspection of the patient had been organized according to the MMPI test, Kettell's test, Raven in 30 years after radiation accident (1971) in dynamics in 2001, 2002, 2006, 2009 with the use of the automated program and methodical Expert complex intended for research of the properties, cognitive and intellectual features of the personality. Results. Average profile of multilateral research of the personality (MMPI) and the dynamics of indicators according to the years of supervision (2001-2009) points to a disharmonious combination of hypochondriac, disturbing and depressive and demonstrative tendencies to prevalence of a demonstration, as firmness manifestation before a heavy illness at the patient after the III degree acute radiation sickness, and local radiation injuries of heavy degree from the extremely uneven gamma and neutron radiation, am-
putation of both shins at level in top / 3, late beam buttock, right hip ulcers, a beam cataract of the III degree of both eyes, stabilized. The assessment of the efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation in dynamics with 2009 indicates emergence of prevalence of hypochondriac tendencies over a demonstration with accession of high uneasiness and autistic lines at preservation of the leading role of an hypochondriac somatization of alarm with considerable decrease in an emotionality, an integration, a freedom of behavior. The changes revealed in dynamics correspond to the specific increase weight of violations of mental adaptation, characteristic for the period of adaptation exhaustion. The high intelligence, good figurative and logical thinking, well-mannered forms of behavior, high control over the emotional sphere, restraint of emotions, independence, self-sufficiency, organization, behavior taking into account environment requirements provided the patient M. firmness before a heavy illness, promoted good adaptation to an environment with confidence in myself, high social adaptability, opportunity successfully to carry out duties, hold the work account (worked 39 years after accident). Comparative assessment of operator ability of the patient M. showed good average time of common and difficult sensorimotor reactions with 2 mistakes, high time of reaction for moving object, however decrease in accuracy of reaction from 10-13% to 2% testifies to manifestation in dynamics of insufficiency of real functional reserves of nervous system. Conclusions. Efficiency of psychophysiological adaptation depends not only on a dose of radiation and weight of the transferred disease, but, mostly, on premorbid properties of the identity of the victim and his social and labor installation.

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