Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Biryukov A.P.

State Scientific Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnazyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Head of department, Professor, Doctor of medical sciences

The question of a 'New Era in the Low Dose Radiation Epidemiology' approach

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №4 Pages: 654-662
Heading: radiation medicine Article type: Review
Authors: Koterov A.N., Ushenkova L.N., Biryukov А.Р., Samoilov A.S.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The historical and recent years data on cancer and/or leukemia rate increasing after exposure of people in low dose (up to 100 mGy) radiation with a low LET, attributiveness of effects and the possibility of their experimental confirmation were considered. Previously, information about the carcinogenic effects of low doses was not clearly interpreted due to the presence of uncertainty, biases and confounders. The biological mechanism was also absent. In the last 5-7 years the situation has changed dramatically: more significant data were obtained: irradiation at computed tomography in dentistry, for residents of a high natural background radiation, and others. Simultaneously it was obtained radiobio-logical data on increased DNA double strand breaks level after exposure to doses from few milligrays and it can be considered as a possible molecular mechanism of these effects. As a result, was declared 'New Era in the Low Dose Radiation Epidemiology' (Kitahara С M., et al., 2015), which can lead to costs in terms of tightening of radiation risks and to fear of medical exposure. The conducted in the review analysis of recent epidemiological and radiobiological evidence suggests, however, that there is no unambiguous evidence of attributed to radiation carcinogenic effects, identified during the 'New Epidemiology of Low Doses', and there is no a proven molecular mechanism that could provide biological plausibility of such effects.

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Proposals on harmonization of the list of the diseases connected with radiation effects as the result of the accident on the CNPP

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №4 Pages: 651-654
Heading: radiation medicine Article type: Author's opinion
Authors: Bushmanov A.Yu., Biryukov А.Р., Korovkina Е.Р., Kretov A.S., Kapitonova N.V.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The lists of the diseases connected with radiation effects existing now at the level not only Russia and Belarus, but also at the Union State in general can be enhanced using cumulative scientific data. There are possible variants, as exceptions in the list of separate nosologies, reasons of which are rather caused not by radiation factors, and as introduction of diseases which radiation nature is confirmed by long-term researches. The conducted researches showed that creation of the single list of diseases within the Union State is a really question solving of which will demand not only significant scientific researches, but also serious legislative initiatives.

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Radiation risks: triumph of the ideal or escape from reality?

Summary:

Biological effects of low doses of radiation action and especially the problem of quantifying are still the subject of much debate and polar opinions about their hazards for a human and the environment. Nevertheless, the use of risk assessments under the control of the state of health of populations exposed is not widespread in the medical community. Does this indicate the need for revision and improvement of the radiation-epidemiological analysis techniques? Years of experience of the Federal Medical and Biophysical Center n.a. A. I. Burnazyan enable us to answerthis question from the standpoint of accumulated unique knowledge and methodologies by which managed to develop its own approach to optimize a core set of questions relating to the problems of long-term radiological effects of low doses.

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Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

Summary:

The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

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Preferance of computer technology for analytical support of large database of medical information systems

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 983-987
Heading: Health Service Organization Article type: Original article
Authors: Biryukov А.P., Vasiliev E.V., Dumansky S.М., Tikhonova О.A., Gert Ju.A., Kapitonova N.V.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: to study the use of intelligent technologies for analytical support of large databases of medical information systems. Material and methods. We used the techniques of object-oriented software design and database design. Results. Based on expert review of models and algorithms for analysis of clinical and epidemiological data and principles of knowledge representation in large-scale health information systems, data mining schema were implemented in the software package of the register of Research Center n.a. A. I. Burnazyan of Russia. Identified areas for effective implementation of abstract data model of EAV and procedures Data Maning for the design of database of biomedical registers. Conclusions. Using intelligent software platform that supports different sets of APIs and object models for different operations in different software environments, allows you to build and maintain an information system through the procedures of data biomedical processing.

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The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 850-853
Heading: Military medicine and disaster medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Birukov A.P., Tukov A.R., Kleeva N.A., Kapitonova N.V.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%), liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%). There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower), than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times) is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

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Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 795-801
Heading: Genetics Article type: Review
Authors: Ushenkova L.N., Koterov A.N., Biryukov А.P.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc.) carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses).

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