Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Ushenkova L.N.

State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnazyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Leading scientist, Candidate of biological sciences

The question of a 'New Era in the Low Dose Radiation Epidemiology' approach

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №4 Pages: 654-662
Heading: radiation medicine Article type: Review
Authors: Koterov A.N., Ushenkova L.N., Biryukov А.Р., Samoilov A.S.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

The historical and recent years data on cancer and/or leukemia rate increasing after exposure of people in low dose (up to 100 mGy) radiation with a low LET, attributiveness of effects and the possibility of their experimental confirmation were considered. Previously, information about the carcinogenic effects of low doses was not clearly interpreted due to the presence of uncertainty, biases and confounders. The biological mechanism was also absent. In the last 5-7 years the situation has changed dramatically: more significant data were obtained: irradiation at computed tomography in dentistry, for residents of a high natural background radiation, and others. Simultaneously it was obtained radiobio-logical data on increased DNA double strand breaks level after exposure to doses from few milligrays and it can be considered as a possible molecular mechanism of these effects. As a result, was declared 'New Era in the Low Dose Radiation Epidemiology' (Kitahara С M., et al., 2015), which can lead to costs in terms of tightening of radiation risks and to fear of medical exposure. The conducted in the review analysis of recent epidemiological and radiobiological evidence suggests, however, that there is no unambiguous evidence of attributed to radiation carcinogenic effects, identified during the 'New Epidemiology of Low Doses', and there is no a proven molecular mechanism that could provide biological plausibility of such effects.

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Specific complex of non-radiation risk factors for socially significant pathologies could affect the liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

Summary:

The review considers the complex of non-radiation factors that could affect the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident: the demographic, social and professional group heterogeneity to warrant differentiation of risk, the effects of heavy metals, 'hot particles', chemicals, psychogenic stress, social dislocation in the post-perestroika period, alcohol abuse, smoking, and the effect of screening. All these factors tend to have a significant intensity, unlike the radiation exposure for the majority of subjects. It is concluded that the increased frequency and severity of some large socially significant pathologies in contingent liquidators may be due to a unique set of predominantly non-radiation factors associated, however, with a particular radiation accident.

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Imperfect conformation of experimental and epidemiological data for frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma for the Chernobyl accident

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 795-801
Heading: Genetics Article type: Review
Authors: Ushenkova L.N., Koterov A.N., Biryukov А.P.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

In an overview and analytical study of the epidemiological data on the frequency of RET/РТС gene rearrangements in sporadic and radiogenic (patients after radiotherapy, residents of contaminated after the Chernobyl disaster areas, victims after the atomic bombings, etc.) carcinomas of the thyroid gland were examined. In general, the observed epidemiological laws were confirmed in radiobiology experiments by irradiation of different cultures of thyroid cells and ex vivo with the exception of Chernobyl cohorts. Induction of RET/РТС gene rearrangements by 131l exposure in children carcinomas of Chernobyl residents in mice did not observe too. It is concluded that the situation with the frequency of RET/РТС rearrangements in thyroid carcinoma in Chernobyl cohorts once again confirms the multifactorial nature of the induction and development of these tumors with a contribution of radiation and non-radiation factors (iodine deficiency and different stresses).

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