Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Nugis V.Yu.

Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnazyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Head of laboratory, Doctor of biological sciences

FISH-method: technique of cytogenetic retrospective dose evaluation

Summary:

The purpose of this work was to submit the review of data of the scientific literature devoted to a FISH method as a way of cytogenetic retrospective dose evaluation. Problems of cytogenetic retrospective assessment of a dose in general; molecular and biological bases of a FISH-method; types of chromosome aberrations identified by means of a FISH-method; the principles of creation of dose curves for the FISH-registered chromosome translocations have been considered. The conclusion is drawn on need of attraction of three-color and multi-color variants of this technique to retrospective dose evaluation.

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Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №4 Pages: 637-644
Heading: Hygiene Article type: Original article
Authors: Galstyan I.A., Nadejina N.M., Suvorova L.A., Kashirina O.G., Nugis V.Ju.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL) range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

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Cytogenetic examination in remote period after the stay in the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site area

Summary:

Aim: retrospective cytogenetic indication of doses probably received by individuals during the residence in the region of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, at work or service in the Armed Forces on it. Material and methods: the analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 16 people с using FISH-method. Re-sults. The frequencies of FISH-registered translocations were not significantly different from control values in 7 out of 16 cases; the dose evaluations ranged from 0.20 to 0.75 Sv for the remaining 9 persons. Conclusion. FISH-technique of chromosome aberration analysis allows to make retrospective dose assessment; however it is desirable simultaneously to produce classical analysis also for a more correct interpretation of the results; Detection of single multiaber-rant cells in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures is characteristic of persons who were in the areas of alpha-emitting radionuclide pollution, what is allowed to talk about radiation damage, but does not allow to make dose assessment.

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Cytogenetic examination of persons working in the area of radiation accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP in Japan

Summary:

Purpose: biological dose indication of employees of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia who took part in the work in Japan in connection with the accident at Fukushima-1 NPP and several journalists covering this event. Material and methods. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 46 people was performed. Results. The frequency of chromosomal damages exceeded background levels in only 3 people, and aberration character testified irradiation in previous situations. Conclusion. The significant overexposure of these workers during they stayed in Japan is absent, however it is necessary to perform a preliminary analysis of chromosome aberrations if you intend to exercise of biological dose indication after returning of people from areas of potential exposure.

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2014_04-01_796-800.pdf356.55 KB

Blood status in the long-term radiation syndrome

Year: 2013, volume 9 Issue: №4 Pages: 882-890
Heading: radiation medicine Article type: Original article
Authors: Galstyan I.A., Suvorova L.A., Nadejina N.M., Kozlova M.G., Nugis V.Yu.
Organization: State Scientific Research Center n.a. A.I. Burnasyan — Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency
Summary:

Aims: to reveal regularities of change of peripheral blood indicators in the long-term acute radiation syndrome (ARS) depending on its initial severity and existence of various somatic diseases. Material and methods. Clinical he-matologic materials from 114 patients in the long-term ARS (from 1,5 to more than 20 years after radiation accident), developed as a result of gamma beta exposure are presented. Results. In the period of the late radiation effect average values of peripheral blood are in physiological norm limits. However at some patients there are temporary superficial cytopenic conditions (thrombocytopenia — 22,7%, a leukopenia — 12,2%, a neutropenia — 13,1%, a lymphocytope-nia — 10,5%). Conclusion. As a result of a dynamic research it is revealed that in the remote terms of ARS (from 1,5 to more than 20 years after radiation) average group levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes in blood are in limits of physiological norm. However in the individual analysis of a functional state of blood at a part of patients are noted not stable cytopenic states.

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Частота аберраций хромосом в лимфоцитах и риск развития заболеваний

Summary:

This article presents an analysis of the data published in connection with the problem of forecast of the development risk of diseases by chromosome aberration frequencies in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the last twenty years evidence of the possibility of such forecast for malignant disease was appeared when in the whole cytogenetic indices did not exceed control values. At the same time there are significant uncertainties due to interindi-vidual and intraindividual variability. In addition there are significant difficulties of distinction of chromosome aberrations induced by environmental influences and caused by internal processes in the body.

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