Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

Macro- and Micromorphology

Detection of fibrous astrocytes on histological sections of hippocampi using two different methods of silver impregnation

Summary:

Цель: выделение клеток волокнистой астроцитарной глии на гистологических срезах гиппокампов при использовании двух различных растворов солей серебра. Материал и методы. Гистологические срезы гиппокампов кроликов, разделенные на две группы, импрегнировали растворами азотнокислого и бромистого серебра. Результаты. На гистологических срезах гиппокампов 1-й группы импрегнировались коротколучистые волокнистые астроциты (ВА). Около круглых ядер наблюдали различную плотность расположения глиофибрилл. Во 2-й группе импрегнировались длиннолучистые ВА с радиально расходящимися тонкими глиофибриллярными отростками. Заключение. Правильное представление об истинной структуре многоотростчатых клеток (содержащих глиофибриллы) можно получить при сравнительном изучении и анализе гистологических препаратов, окрашенных с помощью различных методов импрегнации солями серебра.

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Morphological changes of tissues in the zone of implantation of combined hernia prosthesis in the post-operative period

Year: 2017, volume 13 Issue: №3 Pages: 458-461
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Kalmin O.V., Nikolsky V.I., Fedorova M.G., Feoktistov Ya.E.
Organization: Penza State University
Summary:

The purpose of this experimental study is to study the patterns of morphological response of the abdominal wall tissues to the implantation of a combined (xenopericardial plate and polyester mesh) hernia prosthesis. Material and Methods. The experiment was carried out on fifteen rabbits of the breed Chinchilla weighing up to 3.5kg. The combined prosthesis was implanted intra — abdominally. The animals were withdrawn from the experiment after 2 weeks, 1 month and 2 months. After the beginning of the study morphological and morphometric assessment of the tissue state in the implantation zone of the prosthesis was carried out. Results. The combined hernia prosthesis when implanted into the anterial abdominal wall causes a rather pronounced inflammatory reaction, progressing within a month after the operation. By the second month of the experiment, signs of inflammation decrease. In this case, active growth of the young connective tissue in the implant from the side of the polyester mesh occurs. Xenopericardial plate, facing the abdominal cavity with a smooth side does not cause the formation of connective tissue, which protects the abdominal cavity from the occurrence of adhesions in the postoperative period. Conclusion. The use of combined hernia prosthesis for implantation into the abdominal wall allows avoiding a number of complications which often occur when using prostheses of other types.

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Bones of sutures and fontanelles of a human skull

Year: 2017, volume 13 Issue: №2 Pages: 209-212
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Zaichenko А.А., Zhurkin K.l.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The purpose: to identify patterns of occurrence and formation of bone joints and bones of the human skull fontanelles vault. Material and Methods. 597 male and female skulls with the bones of the anterior and posterior fontanelle, the bones of the coronal, sagittal and lambdoid sutures, including skulls of 9 men and 8 women with skulls bone of anterior fontanelle were studied. The variability of the bone of the anterior fontanelle of 9 skulls of men 19-82 years old and 8 skulls of women 18-86 years old was studied to determine the common factors shaping the skull and unstable bones. The area of the anterior fontanelle bone, as well as its maximum longitudinal and transverse dimensions was measured. The longitudinal and transverse diameters of the skulls with the bones of the anterior fontanel were measured, their transverse-longitudinal index was calculated. Correlation analysis (including the calculation of the index tetrachoric connection and private first-order coefficient of correlation) and analysis of variance were used. Results. The relationship between the presence of bone fontanelles stronger association between bone joints, which suggests more probable existence of a single factor in the occurrence of bone fontanelles than joints of bones. The occurrence of bone fontanelles not connecting with the occurrence of joints of bones (except for weak connection bone anterior fontanelle and bone coronal suture), which may indicate the influence of various factors on their appearance, and therefore the study of non-metric features of the skull to unite the bones of joints and bones of fontanelle area in the same group is not valid. The longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the anterior fontanelle bone is not connected to each other, while the area of the bone is determined, above all, its longitudinal dimension and the value of the back (interparietal) part, due to which, obviously, in the studied tortoises area anterior fontanelle bone increases with dolicho-crania. Conclusion. The relationship between the presence of fontal bones is stronger than the connection between the presence of bone sutures. The origin of the bones of fontanelles is not associated with the appearance of bone seams. The longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the anterior fontanelle bone are not related to each other, and the area correlates mainly with the longitudinal dimension and the size of the posterior (intertemporal) part.

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Age variability of massiveness of bones in the forearm at men

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №3 Pages: 323-327
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Popov A.N., Anisimova Е.А., Anisimov D.l., Popryga D.V.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Aim: to detect the regularities of age variability of bones in the forearm at adult men. Material and Methods. By the method of a direct osteometry the greatest length and the circle of the middle diaphysis of radial and ulnar bones were determined. The thickness-length index reflecting massiveness of a bone was defined as a percentage of a circle of middle diaphysis to the greatest length of a bone. Results. Age features of the greatest length, the greatest circle of a diaphysis and the thickness-length index of bones in the forearm, and also correlation of the studied parameters with a body length were revealed. Conclusion. The greatest length of radial and ulnar bones changes with age slightly whereas the circle of the middle diaphysis of bones in the forearm significantly increases with age according to the statistics that affects the increase in an index of massiveness of bones.

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Concentration of mineralizing elements in interstitial fluid of structures of a tooth germ

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №2 Pages: 127-130
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Chependyuk Т.А., Aleshkina O.Yu., Okushko V.R.
Organization: Pridnestrovian State University n.a. T. G. Shevchenko, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Цель; определить и сравнить концентрацию кальция и фосфора в интерстициальной жидкости тканей зачатка (пульпы, эмалевого органа) и фолликулярной жидкости по ходу центробежного перемещения. Материал и методы. Изучен состав интерстициальной жидкости пульпы, эмалевого органа и фолликулярной жидкости 23 зубных зачатков. Для биохимического анализа образцов использован ферментативно-фотоколориметрический метод на биохимическом полуавтоматическом анализаторе «Stat Fax 3300». Результаты. В интерстициальной жидкости пульпы концентрация кальция в 1,7 раза больше, чем в плазме, в 3 раза выше, чем в эмалевом органе, и в 7 раз больше, чем в фолликулярной жидкости. Средняя концентрация фосфора в пульпе в 10 раз выше, чем в плазме крови. Заключение. Выявлено весьма значимое различие концентраций остеотропных элементов в интерстициальных жидкостях изученных структур. Доказано, что концентрация кальция и фосфора убывает по ходу движения постулируемого потока жидкости от пульпы зачатка к перифолликулярному пространству. Повышение концентрации изученных элементов в интерстиции пульпы по сравнению с плазмой крови свидетельствует о способности пульпы концентрировать данные элементы и таким путем обеспечивать минерализацию обызвествленных тканей зуба и до его прорезывания.

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Biomechanical modelling of cerebral arteries at different variants of configuration of intracranial arteries of vertebrobasilar system

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №2 Pages: 118-127
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Fomkina О.А., Ivanov D.V., Kirillova I.V., Nikolenko V.N.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University, Saratov state university
Summary:

The purpose is to consider the biomechanical modelling of cerebral arteries at different structural variants of intracranial arteries of vertebrobasilar system. Material and methods. By means of the system of the final and element analysis ANSYS on the basis of data on geometry, morphometricand biomechanical properties of cerebral arteries their biomechanical models have been constructed. On the received models for 9 structural variants of intracranial arteries of vertebrobasilar system, haemodynamic parameters and parameters of the intense deformed condition of walls of arteries have been analyzed. Results. The most frequent variant of a configuration of intracranial department of vertebrobasilar system is the combination of average in size of angles of connection of vertebrata and bifurcation of basilar arteries. Such option occurs in 49% of cases. More rare variant (1,5% of cases) with the narrow angles of connection of vertebrata and bifurcations of basilar arteries has been observed. The design of intracranial arteries of vertebrabasi-lar system exerts an impact on distribution of bloodflow and effective tension in a vascular wall of back brain arteries. Conclusion. According to the study it has been determined that the constructed individual biomechanical models may provide information on some parameters of haemodynamics and the intense deformed condition of a vascular wall which causes the development of atherosclerosis and intracranial aneurisms.

Modern issue on the role of microorganisms in the induction and the development of atherosclerosis

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №2 Pages: 113-117
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Review
Authors: Kupryushin AS, Chudaeva DG, Fedorova MG, Latynova IV, Vishnyakova ZhS, Kuprushyna NV, Efimov AA.
Organization: Penza State University
Summary:

More than 70 literature sources are presented and analyzed in the work. Data sources are devoted to the connection between infection and development of atherosclerotic changes. It has been found out that the infection and the presence of pathogenic microorganisms influence the progression of atherosclerosis.

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Morphometrical variability of dental alveoli of mandible in adults

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №2 Pages: 110-112
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Aleshkina O.Yu., Rossoshansky D.N., Polkovova I.A., Bikbaeva T.S.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

Objective: to determine the morphometrical variability of dental alveoli bilaterally, depending on their position in the alveolar part of the mandible. Material and Methods. The object of the study is to certify 70 cranions with mandibles of middle-aged adults (21-60 years) and 30 isolated mandibles without gender-and age-related characteristics. The objects of the study were taken from scientific cranial fundamental museum collection of the Department of Human Anatomy. For the scientific research Craniometry method was used according to generally accepted craniology process parameters. Dental alveoli on both sides of the mandible were studied. Results. It was established that longitudinal diameter prevails at tooth alveoli of a canine, the first and second premolars, cross diameter on the same side of a jaw at the left — at alveoli of a medial incisor and the first premolar in comparison with its right side. At dental alveoli the left-sided depth is larger of the first molar, of the second molar — the right-sided is larger. Longitudinally cross diameter in the direction from alveoli of front teeth to back ones increases at each subsequent alveolus, since the minimum size at incisors and reaching the maximum size at alveoli of the first and second molars. The largest depth of tooth alveoli is determined at a canine, the first and second premolars. Conclusion. Results of the research of bilateral and individual variability of parameters of tooth cells may be used in practical stomatology.

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Dynamics of laser speckle imaging of blood flow in the tissues at partial temporary pancreatic ischemia of hungry, fed and alcoholized rats

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №2 Pages: 106-109
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Alexandrov D.A., Timoshina P.A., Tuchin V.V., Maslyakova G.N., Palatova T.V., Sedov D.S., Izmailov R.R.
Organization: Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The aim of the study is to determine the influence of a partial temporary ischemia and reperfusion on the development of pancreatitis in laboratory rats. Material and Methods. The experiments were performed on 73 white rats. Occluded blood vessels and blood flow were recorded by digital biomicroscopy and laser speckle contrast imaging. Statistical data processing was carried out the program Statistica for Windows 6.0 using the Student's criterion. Results. Laser speckle imaging and digital microscopes provide the monitoring of blood flow in the vessels of the pancreas. After a five-minute partial ischemia reactive hyperemia occurs, changes are invertible. After a twenty-minute partial ischemic reactive hyperemia does not occur, without developing pancreatitis necrosis. Pancreas of alcoholized rats has been found out to be more sensitive to ischemia. Conclusion. The method of laser speckle imaging and intravital microscopy after digital five- and twenty-minute partial ischemia of the pancreas revealed phase opposite directed changes in its tissue perfusion and varying severity of postischemic pancreatitis.

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Anatomy of sphenoid part of middle cerebral artery in adults

Year: 2016, volume 12 Issue: №1 Pages: 15-18
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Review
Authors: Fomkina О.А., Nikolenko V.N., Gladilin Yu.A.
Organization: First Moscow State Medical University n.a. I.M. Sechenov, Saratov State Medical University
Summary:

The information about anatomy of middle cerebral artery in adults has been summarized on the basis of data analysis of domestic and foreign scientific literature. Material concerning options for arteries discharge, area of blood supply, major anomalies and size characteristics (outer diameter, wall thickness, lumen diameter) has been represented in this work.

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