Saratov JOURNAL of Medical and Scientific Research

The structure of thyroid gland in its pathology

Year: 2015, volume 11 Issue: №2 Pages: 113-117
Heading: Macro- and Micromorphology Article type: Original article
Authors: Khayrullin R.M., Kalmin O.V., Kalmin O.O.
Organization: Penza State University

Objective: to identify the microscopic features of the structure of the thyroid gland in different forms of its pathology. Materials and Methods. The study is based on the thyroid glands of 199 patients of both sexes aged 21 to 74 years. Results. At the micro-macrofollicular nontoxic goiter was found flattened thyroid epithelium with flattened normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, low nuclear-cytoplasmic index, intrafollicular moderate epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid and moderate diffuse lymphoid infiltration. At the micro-macrofollicular toxic goiter detected cubic epithelium with rounded normochromic kernel, smallest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic minimum index intrafollicular focal proliferation of the epithelium, colloid mesh boundary with severe vacuolization, focal lymphoid infiltration and hemorrhage. When diffuse toxic goiter detected cubic form cells of medium size with a fairly high nuclear-cytoplasmic index, rounded normochromic kernel, rare intrafollicular epithelial proliferation, homogeneous colloid with an edge vacuolization. With the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis was observed flattened epithelium with rounded normochromic nucleus, the small size of cells and nuclei, found the average nuclear-cytoplasmic index, homogeneous colloid and extensive lymphoid infiltration with light propagation centers. Adenoma of the thyroid gland epithelium was found with a cubic cell shape, round hyperchromatic nucleus, the large size of cells and nuclei, high nuclear-cytoplasmic index intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of epithelial and dense colloid. When thyroid cancer found the prevalence of papillary structures with short broad papillae formed polymorphic cells with round hyperchromatic nucleus, there is the largest size of cells and nuclei, nuclear-cytoplasmic maximum index expressed intrafollicular diffuse proliferation of the epithelium. Conclusions. Each form of thyroid disease, along with well-known typical microscopic manifestations is a characteristic regional feature of the microstructure.

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